Pages

Wednesday, October 27, 2004

Petroglyphs (Rock Drawings) Found in Egypt's Wadi Qum Heleeg in Sharqeya

Via Explorator we are directed to The Egyptian State Information Service and their October 20, 2004 report of 132 ancient petroglyphs found in the Eastern Desert by a Minnesota University excavation in Wadi Qum Heleeg in the Sharqeya desert.

Dr. Zahi Hawas, Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, is cited as saying that there were, inter alia, rock drawings of cattle and a flock tied to persons.

Why systematic pictures of such finds are not immediately published in the news media is one of the great weaknesses and signs of unacademic selfishness in the mainstream archaeological community.

The actual photos are often kept secret until they can be (allegedly) explained and exploited by the finders.

For this reason, much of what is written about rock drawings by the mainstream is nonsense since there is no free interplay of interpretation.

Thursday, August 12, 2004

Ancient Geodetic Measure - Russia - Egypt - Mycenae

Ancient Geodetic Measure - Russia - Egypt - Mycenae

Tompkins writes of an ancient geodetic measure and has many references to it. Below are some I have selected:

MYCENAE - the LION GATE

(next to this gate is a so-called "Grave Circle" of stone blocks
arranged in a circle)

Tompkins writes (p. 353):
"...the relief consists of a column between two facing lions. The column is sandwiched between two sets of parallel horizontal lines. At the bottom the column rests on a support on which three parallel lines are strongly marked. These three lines are the same three lines which occur in the hieroglyphic symbol for Southern Egypt; they represent the tropic of Cancer". The column represents the three basic meridians of Egypt...."

RUSSIA and the BLACK SEA

Tompkins writes further about the three meridians (p. 346):

Beginning from [a] base line [a line identified by Tompkins at ca. 45 degrees along the north side of the Black Sea from the mouth of the Danube, across Crimea to the foot of the Caucasus], Russia was surveyed [in ancient days] for a length of 10 degrees, along the three meridians which formed the three axes of Egypt, up to a latitude [of what Tompkins says is ca. 55 degrees but which we know from the megalithic site on the White Sea to extend to near the Arctic Circle]. The River Dnieper was understood to be a symmetric counterpart of the Nile, running between the same meridians. Key positions along the course of the Dnieper were identified with corresponding key positions along the course of the Nile, up to the point of transferring Egyptian place names to Russia [note by AK - this process is in my opinion actually the reverse]. The information about the existence of this geodetic system is provided by the description of a map of Russia which is based on it. The description of the map indicates that it was used at the end of the sixth century B.C., but the map may be older; in any case there are other sources of information about the base line which indicate that it was marked in very early times."

This all supports my view that the Great Pyramid is at a key
position in an ancient geodetic system which preceded the pyramids,
but which we find around the world in the megaliths.

See
http://www.megaliths.net

Technorati Tags
, , , , , , , , , , , , ,
.

Pharaonic Egypt Stretching the Cord

Pharaonic Egypt Stretching the Cord

This continues my postings on "background information" to properly understand the Great Pyramid of Cheops at Giza [Latvian gaissa "in the sky"] in Egypt.

Tompkins in his Secrets of the Great Pyramid writes at pp. 380 and
381 as follows:

"...it appears that there was drawn a plan of the Great Pyramid which included the calculation of the stars to be observed in order to obtain the direction of the north. After this plan was drawn, the ground of the Pyramid had to be cleared in order to proceed to the ceremony called "stretching the cord," which for the Egyptians was the equivalent of our laying of the first stone. This ceremony had the purpose of establishing the direction of true north and, as the Egyptians saw it, suspending the building from the sky by tying the building with an imaginary string to the axis of rotation of the vault of heaven."

How was north determined? Tompkins writes (p. 380):
"If my interpretation of Egyptian sky charts is correct [it is so in my opinion - AK], the line that indicates the north used to be marked so as to pass through the celestial pole AND through the pole of the ecliptic."

For the solar eclipse of July 25, 2430 BC on the Nile Delta this line - according to the Heifetz precessional planisphere - runs straight through the stars Zosma (Duhr) and Chort in Leo (the Sphinx) which are represented by the King's and Queen's Chamber, as shown at
´
http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi70.htm

In fact the west face of the Great Pyramid "is not oriented to the north, but is oriented 2'30" west of true north." This deviation from orientation to the north is, according to Tompkins, the result of the precession of the equinoxes from the date of the first plan to the actual laying of the first stone - since precession of the equinoxes "displaces the star taken as the polar star in practical calculations to the the west at a rate of about 50" a year.

It is this rate of precession which the Great Pyramid was intended to calculate exactly.

As Tompkins writes at page 382 in concluding his book:
"I have collected a mass of numerical evidence which shows that the inhabitants of the ancient world were acquainted with the rate of the precession of the equinoxes [and solstices] and attached a major significance to it."

Technorati Tags
, , , , , , , , ,

.

Pharaonic Egypt and the Law of King Athelstan

Pharaonic Egypt and the Law of King Athelstan

King Athelstan was, according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the "first West Saxon king to have effective rule over the whole of England".

People wonder that a person trained in law and evidence such as myself is interested in ancient history - but law has a great deal to do with ancient history - and mainstream scholars in the field of ancient history, not being trained in law OR evidence, have really botched it all up terribly. The Tablets of Ebla contain many laws and should not be left to the realm solely of archaeology. The Code of Hammurabi [sic, Hammurabi is a misreading of Abraham, backwards] is a code of laws.

As the Britannica states under Athelstan:
"Six of Athelstan's extant codes of law reveal stern efforts to suppress theft and punish corruption. They are notable in containing provisions intended to comfort the destitute and mitigate the punishment of young offenders. The form and language of his many documents suggest the presence of a corps of skilled clerks and perhaps the beginning of the English civil service."

One of the laws of Athelstan defined the length of the English foot.
As written by Tompkins in the Secrets of the Great Pyramid (p. 344):

"The text of this law is included in the standard collections of medieval English laws. The words of law of Athelstan were repeated exactly in the legislation about measures [i.e. in the sense of weights and measures] issued by King Henry I.... Athelstan prescribed that the king's girth shall extend from the royal residence for a distance of 3 miles, 3 furlongs, 9 acres, 9 feet, 9 palms, and 9 barleycorns. The King's girth was the area considered a direct extension of the King's place of residence and as such the area in which the King's peace was in force. This was the area in which attacks on private persons were crimes against the Crown [we retain this as "refuge" and "sanctuary" in modern times, e.g. people
seeking refuge in embassies or churches]. The picturesque language of the law means that the King's girth extends for a radius of 18,250 feet, since it is a matter of the following units:

.....mile....................5280 feet [x 3]
.....furlong..................600 feet [x 3]
.....acre......................66 feet [x 9]
.....palm......................3/4 foot [lengthwise?] [x 9]
.....barleycorn................1/3 inch [x 9]

... My understanding [this is still Tompkins writing] of the law of King Athelstan is that the radius of the King's girth extended 6 minutes or 1/10 of degree from north to south. This implies that a degree was understood to be 365,000 English feet [note that this was made a multiple of 365], which is the length of the degree at the latitude of towns like Winchester...."


Tompkins then goes to show that this system of geodetic measure - rooted in an ancient measure of the Earth - is remarkably similar to that used in Pharaonic Egypt, a system which was astronomically anchored by the exact measurements made possible by the pyramids.

See http://www.megaliths.net

Great Pyramid Secret Shafts of Cheops

Great Pyramid Secret Shafts of Cheops

For this posting, in order to have a sound basis for understanding the discussion, it is essential to read the index page at

http://www.megaliths.net

and also
http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi18.htm or
http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi70.htm and
http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi30.htm

As far as the cupmarks in the secret shafts of Cheops are concerned, the builders
marked certain blocks of stone so that the foremen and their workers
would put the blocks in the right place on the pyramid and - even
more importantly - with the intended corners also in the right
places. If you have a six-sided rectangular block of stone, there
are 8 possible positions in placing this stone.
If the sides are A,B,C and D and the ends are E and F, then
for end E forward any of the sides A,B,C and D can point upwards and
the same is true for end F forward. If the blocks are perfectly
rectangular or serve no special function, then it does not matter of
course, but this becomes critical for finer construction work.

In the case of the markings at the end of the shaft in the Cheops
Pyramid, the markings surely served as "notes" for the star watchers
who marked the stellar positions visible to them (this of course was
done when the shafts still had an open outlet to the sky at the
position of the secret chamber and before the pyramid was "topped
off".)

That some kind of marking was required in order to avoid chaos on the
building site is clear - there are two-and-a-half MILLION blocks of
stone in the Great pyramid - differing in size depending on where
they are and weighing from 2 to 70 tons apiece (see Peter Tompkins,
Secrets of the Great Pyramid).

When people speak of the building of the great pyramids they tend to ignore the problems of simple but necessary logistics. It is not enough just to cut blocks at the quarry - people had to have instructions all along the way - sizing
the stones, transporting the stones to the right spot on the pyramid
and placing the stones at the proper positions. Some kind of
labelling and communication along the entire path from quarry to
pyramid was essential.

What about the purpose of the shafts? Nothing shows the incompetence
of mainstream Egyptology in this field more than their
previous "establishment" view of these shafts as "air ventilaton
shafts" - which is absolute nonsense, and which has been proven as absolute nonsense by the recent discovery of a secret chamber at the end of one of the shafts.

As Tompkins writes in his Secrets of the Great Pyramid (pp. 133-137)
way back in 1971:

"A glance at the outlines and cross sections of the pyramids of
Saqqara, Dashur and Medum will show that, like ancient British
observatories, each had a sighting passage pointed at a northern
star. The passage ended in an observation chamber with a corbeled
roof with a small opening just at ground level, presumably for
sighting a star directly overhead at the zenith, or for lowering a
plumb line to coincide with a line sighted down the sloping passage."


Tompkins wrote that piece long before the books of Bauval and Hancock.

The same closed-mindedness as found in Egyptology is also found in mainstream Archaeology.

Tompkins continues that last paragraph as follows:
"The similarity [of the pyramids] to the structure at Maes-Howe [Orkneys, Scotland] is indeed amazing. Yet Maes-Howe has also been considered as nothing but a burial chamber. A recent writer on Maes-Howe discarded the
theory that the mound might have had astronomical significance,
saying that the belief is accepted by no "serious student of
archeology".


Indeed, mainstream Egyptologists and archaeologists have taken
delight in calling people who saw astronomical significance in these
constructions as "Pyramidiots".

Let me say clearly and for all the world to hear that the only
Pyramidiots out there are the vast majority of mainstream
Egyptologists and archaeologists.

There are in fact serious issues here. Why in the Great Pyramid do
the shafts bend rather than being perfectly straight Did they use
some kind of reflectors as mirrors - and why? Where were the
measurements made? and at what stages in the course of building the
pyramid were such measurements made? Were corrections made for the motion of stars and resulting displacement in the course of the time it took to build a pyramid?
These are the kinds of questions which the mainstream scientists
should be addressing - not whether these shafts were "air shafts".

Many questions, by the way, are answered by Tompkins in his
book Secrets of the Great Pyramid, in my estimation the best book ever written on the pyramids - though even he has many theories, suppositions,
myths, and errors. But in comparison to the erroneous pablum written
by the Egyptologists and archaeologists up to now, Tompkins is gold.

He is at least "scratching at the truth". The mainstream has
been "scratching away the truth." That is a significant difference.

Cheops Pyramid: The Secret Chamber

Cheops Pyramid: The Secret Chamber

Posted to the LexiLine group files at
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files
are the files
cheops1.gif and .tif
and cheops2.gif and cheops2.tif
showing my decipherment of what was found in the Secret Chamber of Cheops.

THE SECRET CHAMBER OF CHEOPS
SEPTEMBER 17, 2002 - MEGALITH FOUND ?

WHAT HAPPENED ON SEPTEMBER 17, 2002 ?

On September 17, 2002, nearly 10 years after Rudolf Gantenbrink's
robot discovered a stone slab (with copper and gypsum seals) at the
end of the southern shaft of the Queen's Chamber in the Cheops
Pyramid, a worldwide TV broadcast showed a new high-tech robot
photographing what lay behind the stone slab at the end of the shaft.

WHAT WAS FOUND BEHIND THE STONE SLAB? A MEGALITHIC WALL !

What was found was an ancient megalithic wall or a megalith built
into the wall across from the shaft-end stone slab, an ancient
megalith which is a "boulder" carved with figures and itself
standing alone in a small apparently otherwise empty room, and
seemingly blocking the way to another room possibly filled with
informational or worldly treasures.

The result, analyzed here on the same day as the TV program, was a
fantastic, enormous discovery, clearly binding the megalithic age
with the Pyramids - unmistakably CONNECTING the megaliths and the
pyramid builders. The importance of this development has not yet
been recognized by anyone else other than this author.

Furthermore, the September 17, 2002, finding confirmed this author's singular
analysis of the Secret Chamber as being related to the
Westcar Papyrus and the Qumran Copper Scroll. We predicted a seal
would be found - and a large "seal" of megalithic proportions has
indeed been found, guarding another chamber in the Great Pyramid.

WHY IS A MEGALITH INSIDE A PYRAMID A SENSATION?

Why is this megalith (viz. megalithic wall) a sensation? Because it
is made of rough, carved stone. The ancient pharaohs went to a great
deal of trouble to make smooth stones for the building of the
Pyramid, so why in the innermost secret sanctum of the Great Pyramid
of Cheops do we find a rough megalith apparently guarding another
secret room?

THE MEGALITH STEMS FROM A MORE ANCIENT ERA

The days of the megalith-builders, as shown by this author at
Megaliths.net centered around ca. 3117 BC, one kingdom or ca. 684
years prior to the building of the Great Pyramid of Cheops. A
megalith in the Cheops Pyramid would be much older than the pyramids. Does
this mean that the Cheops Pyramid supplanted this ancient megalith
at Giza? Did the Cheops Pyramid take its place?

Was the calender "revised" due to precession - and was this the "revision"
discussed in ancient documents by Gardiner and Erman? Surely it was
so. The Cheops Pyramid replaced the megalith found in the secret
chamber just uncovered. That is why it is there. We must of course
also ask: if an ancient megalith guards a room in the Great Pyramid,
then it surely also guards something ancient - is this also the
legendary Hall of Records? The future will tell.

WHY DID TODAY'S MAINSTREAM EGYPTOLOGISTS ERR?

Most past statements about the secret chamber made by "modern"
mainstream Egyptologists have been proven wrong, wildly wrong. They
did not know what they were talking about, and things have not
gotten better for them after September 17, 2002.

The reason for this is that the Egyptologists do not know or do not wish to accept the actual reason why the Great Pyramid was built - which was for geodetics and astronomy.

Since the Egyptologists have little knowledge in these disciplines by training, they are as a group generally unprepared in any way to judge or analyze any of this new
discovery and one should generally disregard their opinions on it.
They carry no weight. Most Egyptologists are linguists, and nothing
more. Except for perhaps Mr. Zahi Hawass, who is by heart and
soul "The Keeper of the Pyramids", this field is not an Egyptologist's
expertise.

THE ANALYSIS BY ANDIS KAULINS - WHAT DOES IT ALL MEAN?

Being a good researcher means not to overlook things. While everyone
has been concentrating on robots and stone slabs, no one has been
looking at the obvious markings at the end of the shaft near the
stone slab. These markings - in part clearly cup marks - as on many
megaliths around the world - identify the stars to the North, West
and East of the Queens Chamber shaft on the effective "date" of the
building of the Cheops Pyramid, which is July 25, 2430 BC, when
there was a solar eclipse at the Summer Solstice point at sunrise
(ca. 6 a.m.) - the time to which all data apply.

July 25, 2430 BC, 6 a.m. - Positions of the Stars

On July 25, 2430 B.C. starting at ca. 6 a.m. there was a solar
eclipse over the Nile Delta at the Summer Solstice point. Looking
north at this time one finds the North Celestial Pole in the tail of
Draco. In the East, there is a solar eclipse at sunrise below Chort
and Zosma (Duhr) in Leo - this is represented by the importance of
the Sphinx (Leo) and by the lion head found inscribed on the
megalith in the room just behind the stone slab at the end of the
southern shaft from the Queen's Chamber (see the graphic below). In
the West, we find Andromeda and Pegasus. These positions are clearly
marked on the stone blocks above and to the left and right of the
stone slab at the end of the shaft. They tell us the stellar
orientation perfectly.

See the graphics at cheops1. gif or .tif
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files
showing the markings on blocks
of stone above, left and right of the stone slab at the end of the
shaft

This stellar location matches the figures found inscribed on the
megalith (viz. megalithic wall) found on September 17, 2002 opposite
the stone slab at the end of the Cheops shaft. The megalith in
entirety has the shape of a lion's head and of course has other
figures carved on it in the interlocking fashion known for megaliths
in the Neolithic era. Each half has a pharaoh's head, with the left
head wearing the crown of Lower Egypt - the DESHRET - and the right
head wearing the crown of Upper Egypt, the P3.

This megalith marks the Milky Way at Cassiopeia and Cepheus (Cheops).

See the files cheops2.gif or .tif
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files
for a graphic showing the
figures inscribed on the megalith (megalithic wall) across from the
Stone Slab in the room discovered in the Cheops Pyramid on September
17, 2002. Next to that graphic is a picture made with Starry Night
Pro and showing the two crowns of Egypt in a heavenly context.

CONCLUSION

The Cheops Pyramid is the Hebrew Qevia meaning "calendric fixing".

It is the calendric fixing one kingdom or 684 years after the start of the Old
Kingdom which is equal to 18 x 19 x 2 = 684 - as a predictive
multiple of the Saros (18 years) and Metonic (19 years) lunar and
solar cycles. As written long ago by Eusebius "it is all astronomy"
and will continue to be astronomy when the next secret chamber is
opened behind the megalith - though I am not certain that any
additional chamber must exist. The megalith is the required record.

Tuesday, August 10, 2004

Khasekhemwy - What do the Egyptologists Know?

Khasekhemwy - What do the Egyptologists Know?

Without meaning to be disparaging, I myself as a dictionary author
look at entries in other dictionaries for comparison, such as "The
British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt", to see "what is really
known", so e.g. under their entry "Khasekhemwy" where we find the
following RELATIVE text excerpts, all in ONE short article about
Khasekhemwy:

"probably his son"
"it has been suggested"
"perhaps also political"
"probably an excessively historical explanation"
"what may have been an iconographic phenomenon"
"debate...hinges partly on the question"
"The picture was once believed to be"
"was thought to refer to another ruler"
"depictions...have been interpreted as evidence"
"generally considered"
"probably the forerunners of the valley temples"
"generally considered"
"poor excavation...has hindered any more definite statement"


Do these people know what they are talking about?

NO.

When we look under "literature", it is written in that same work:

"Throughout the Pharaonic period it is often difficult to
distinguish between fictional narratives and accounts of actual
events, and part of this problem stems from a general inability to
recognize the aims and contexts of particular texts."


What happens in the course of time in Egyptology, however, is that
all of these unclear texts, suppositions and assumptions creep into
the mainstream literature, are cited by scholars, citing their
cronies and professors, and then are quoted LATER as fact - even
though originally such alleged facts were just nice suppositions,
supported by little or no evidence, and to which generally no new
supporting knowledge had been added.

As written further under "literature" in the British Museum
Dictionary:

"Many such documents are perhaps best regarded as semi-fictional works...."

And so also should one regard Egyptological dictionaries, as "semi-
fictional works", whatever that means. When the Egyptologists KNOW
what they are writing and defining, the definitions and explanations
will look different than they do now.

When you look to have Khasekhemwy "defined" properly , you will find
that best at
http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi762.htm

When the British Musuem Dictionary "definition" writes of
Khasekhemwy that

"The depictions of slain enemies on the two statues
[one statue shown at the LexiLine pages] have been interpreted as
evidence of military activities during his reign",
you can toss such
nonsense straight into the wastebasket. The Egyptologists on that
score do not know what they are talking about.

Sunday, July 11, 2004

Karnak Restoration Activities


Karnak Restoration Activities

The Egyptian Al-Ahram Weekly On-Line reports in an article by Nevine El-Aref entitled A perfectly sacred place that comprehensive conservation and reconstruction activities, based upon a plan worked out by "a team from the Centre Franco-Egyptian d'Etude des Temples de Karnak (CFEETK) - François Larché, director - along with their Egyptian colleagues", as stated by Sabri Abdel- Aziz, head of the Ancient Egyptian antiquities department, are being conducted at Karnak in Egypt by the Egyptian SCA (Supreme Council of Antiquities),

Not only is much restoration work going on at Karnak, but at the Valley of Kings, the SCA "is undertaking another site management project with a budget of $2.6 million offered as a grant by the Japanese government." Interesting is that a new high tech security system similar to the one at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo is also being installed at the tombs of the Valley of Kings.

Thursday, June 17, 2004

Lower Egypt Nome 6 - ANE BC P17

Lower Egypt Nome 6 - ANE BC P17

This posting expands on the previous presentation in the Ancient Egypt Blog CHEOPS explaining the Lower and Upper Nomes of Egypt as hermetic geodetic astronomy.
See explanation of the Lower Egypt Nomes and the Upper Egypt Nomes.
See also Lower Egypt Nome 5 (in English) and Egyptian Nomes (in German)

LOWER EGYPT NOME 6


6. V of Horns of Lupus, H3sww, "mountain bull".

Update, June 18, 2004:

In Hannig ED1 (p. 1542, Toponyme), the first term listed is transcribed as 3wrt and transliterated as Auret (*Buto). This transcription and transliteration is incorrect. The hieroglyphs actually read GAI-OS VA-R-TI,
(see my postings about the hieroglyphs for corrected readings of symbols).

In Latvian "guos varti" viz "guovs varti" means "the gate of the cattle" which in the hermetic astronomical context is LUPUS, homophonic with Latvian LUOPS "cattle, cow, steer". (Note that where the dictionaries write Latvian "o" as gos viz. govs and luops as lops, I use the "uo" instead of the "o" - as in earlier German orthography of Latvian - since it better reflects the true pronunciation. The Latvian "O" is not like the English O but is closer to a "W" or "UO" sound.

The above reading of "cattle gate" is confirmed by the actual nome symbol of a steer.

Lower Egypt Nome 5 - ANE BC P16


Lower Egypt Nome 5 - ANE BC P16

This posting expands on the previous presentation in the Ancient Egypt Blog CHEOPS explaining the Lower and Upper Nomes of Egypt as hermetic geodetic astronomy.
See explanation of the Lower Egypt Nomes and the Upper Egypt Nomes.
See also Lower Egypt Nome 5 (in English) and Egyptian Nomes (in German)

LOWER EGYPT NOME 5


5. V-stars of Centaurus, Nt, "Northern shield", the stars which at theta-Centauri (Menkent) form the shape of a flower above the centaur.

Update, June 17

The major city of Nome 5 (and perhaps also 4) was Sau (Zau), in Greek Sais and in Arabic Sa al-Hagar. Zau and Hagar might be remnants of the names Wazn and Hadar, "Ground and Weight" applied to the stars alpha and beta-Centauri.

Wednesday, June 16, 2004

Pharaonic Egyptian Hieroglyphs 1 - Vowel Sounds - ANE BC P15


Pharaonic Egyptian Hieroglyphs 1 - Vowel Sounds - ANE BC P15

Pharaonic Egyptian Vowels in Hieroglyphs

Pharaonic Egyptian Vowels in Hieroglyphs

The current view of the Egyptian hieroglyphs is that they contained no "vowels". Although this is true in terms of "modern" vowels as used to separate consonants, the Egyptian hieroglyphs do in fact have symbols for vowel-type sounds which did not function as "vowels" per se but which represented separate language elements as specific sounds.

The above graphic shows my new decipherment of the ancient Old Kingdom Pharaonic Egyptian vowel-sound system.

Decipherment of the Vowel-Sound System of Ancient Egypt

This decipherment is the beginning of my correction of the mainstream transcriptions, transliterations and interpretations of the hieroglyphs. Mainstream work contains many, many errors.

In the early days of the Pharaonic Egyptian hieroglyphs, the ancients did not yet have our words or specific concepts for "vowel" or "consonant".

Indeed, even in modern times, a thing like "vowels" is a complicated subject. See e.g. Louis Goldstein of Yale University and his writings on "vowel theory".

Yet, in order to devise a written language, the ancients had to have some primitive "linguistic" understanding of sound and its connection to symbols in order to devise a workable writing system.

I have discovered how that Pharaonic "vowel" system worked.

Mater Lectionis - Early vowels in the Hebrew Alphabet

The Pharaonic "vowels" show that the Egyptian hieroglyphs were the DIRECT predecessor system to what is known as the matres lectionis of the Hebrew alphabet in which the letter Aleph is mostly an A, the letter He mostly an A, the letter Waw mostly an O or a U, and the letter Jod (also spelled Yod) mostly I, E or AE.

The Linguistics of Sound and Vowel Theory

Mater lectionis derives out of the limited number of ways in which
vowels can be formed by human speech.

Early Vowel Theory

As Goldstein notes:

Indian grammarians as early as the 7th century
already divided vowels into three distinct types:
(1) palatal (so-called "mouth vowels")
(2) labio-velar (so-called "lip vowels")
(3) pharyngeal (so-called "throat vowels")

Modern Vowel Theory

Modern linguistics has expanded this list to four types of vowels:
(1) palatal ("mouth vowels")
(2) velar ("lip vowels")
(3) uvular ("tongue vowels")
(4) pharyngeal ("in the throat")

The Egyptian Vowel-Type Hieroglyphs mark Vowel Sounds

What I have discovered in the most ancient Pharaonic Egyptian hieroglyphs is that their makers recognized four qualities of vowel-type sounds - and consciously selected homophonic (same-sounding) symbols to mark these sounds - sounds which are similar in function to modern linguistic vowel theory, but of course not as advanced in their nature 5000 years ago.

These four vowel-type sounds in ancient Egypt were:

1. The Breath Sound - Breath Hieroglyph - the "LEAF, reed LEAF" Hieroglyph
2. The Throat Sound - Pharyngeal Hieroglyph - the "EAGLE" (vulture) Hieroglyph
3. The Nasal Sound - Velar Hieroglyph - the "CHICKEN" Hieroglyph
4. The Palatal Sound - Uvular Hieroglyph - the "BENT ARM" Hieroglyph

In order to represent these "vowel-types" with symbols, the makers of the hieroglyphs - on the basis of the evidence of the Indo-European language, e.g. on the basis of Latvian lexical comparisons, selected symbols which were pronounced similarly - i.e. were homophonic - to the vowel sound description.

The Four Pairs of Homophonic Hieroglyphs and Vowel Sound Functions

The following four pairs of words are homophonic in Latvian - and fit the Egyptian hieroglyphs perfectly. I find that these same homophonic pairs are found clearly in the Egyptian hieroglyphs:

1. ALPA (whence ALPHA) viz. ELPA "breath" is homophonic with LAPA viz. VARPA "leaf, ear" whence also VARPATA "couch-grass, dog grass". (Note that the later alphabet used the "steer, ox" symbol for Alpha, a steer in Latvian being LUOP, also a word homophonic to ALPA.) In ancient Old Kingdom Egypt, the "leaf" or "reed leaf" symbol thus represented the "breath sound" in the ancient hieroglyphs.

2. IERIKLIS ("in the throat") is homophonic with ERGLIS "eagle" (vulture in Egypt). The "eagle" viz. "vulture" symbol thus represented the "throat sound" in the ancient hieroglyphs.

3. UOSTA ("smell, smeller, of the nose") is homophonic with VISTA "chicken".
The "chicken" symbol thus represented a "nasal sound" in the ancient hieroglyphs.

4. ROKA ("bent, arm") is homophonic with LOKA "bent, pliable, flexible", supple").
The "bent arm" thus represented a "palatal (bent) sound" in the ancient hieroglyphs. Even today LOCISHANA in Latvian is applied as a word in linguistics, applying to declension and conjugation.

Consequence of the Hieroglyphic "Vowel-Sound" Discovery

This above discovery now permits us to recognize that the hieroglyphs were not just chance symbols selected at random or because of religious or other considerations, but were selected primarily for their pronounced SOUND as being similarly sounding - homophonic - to an intended linguistic sound FUNCTION.

Accordingly, we will expect a similar intelligence and rational reasoning to be at work in the formulation of the remainder of the hieroglyphs, also for the "consonants" (which - as we will see - were also seen combined with vowel sounds). Even though the ancients did not have the precise equivalent concept of "consonant" in ancient days, they recognized similar sounds.

An explanation of the hieroglyphs of the ancient Egyptian "alphabet" will also soon be forthcoming, as well as further correction of the decipherment of many other hieroglyphs which did not attain later "alphabetic" status.

Technorati Tags
, , , , , , , , , , , , ,
.

Monday, June 14, 2004

Lower Egypt Nome 4 - ANE BC P14

Lower Egypt Nome 4 - ANE BC P14

This posting expands on the previous presentation in the Ancient Egypt Blog CHEOPS explaining the Lower and Upper Nomes of Egypt as hermetic geodetic astronomy.
See explanation of the Lower Egypt Nomes and the Upper Egypt Nomes.
See also Lower Egypt Nome 4 (in English) and Egyptian Nomes (in German)

LOWER EGYPT NOME 4


4. Spica in Virgo, nt, read by Egyptologists as "Southern shield", it is also possible that this is a reference to Centaurus and/or the Southern Cross, Crux, below Virgo. Centaurus was pictured with a shield in later eras. See Richard Hinckley Allen, Star Names, p. 151.

Update, June 16

Nomes 4 and 5 of Lower Egypt are the southern and northern parts of the "province" of Neit, divided after the Old Kingdom, and this large size makes it look as if Centaurus is intended rather than Spica and Virgo, Virgo being almost directly on the ecliptic, although the Arabic name for Virgo, Al Adhra al Nathifah (the innocent - or pure - maiden), may through Nath-ifah have given the name Neith to these two nomes, assigned to it by the Egyptologists.

The main city in Nome 4 is Tanta, which might be a variant of Kenta-urus, but this is speculation as there is no other evidence to support this conclusion as yet.

The idea of a "Southern Shield" has its comparable in Chinese astronomy where Nan Mun marked the lucida of the Centaur and was called the "South Gate".

RHA writes that alpha-Centauri was known as Serk-t in Egypt, but this seems not to explain the Sobek applied to it on the White Chapel (see Digital Egypt).

Monday, June 07, 2004

Ancient Egyptians had a Sense of Humor - ANE BC P12

Ancient Egyptians had a Sense of Humor - ANE BC P12

My father, Arvids Kaulins, had a favorite saying: "Times change, but people do not".

The Ancient Egyptians had a sense of humor and were just like moderns in this regard, according to a Discovery Channel article by Jennifer Viegas of Discovery News entitled Ancient Egyptians Were Jokesters, reporting on a lecture on the topic of Ancient Egyptian humor by Carol Andrews, a lecturer in Egyptology at Birbeck College, University of London.

Studies such as this are important to help us to realize that ancient men and women were like us and that portrayals of ancient man as an ignorant brute are just, well, ignorant. This also applies to our assessment of ancient technology.

For example, mainstream historians of astronomy want to deny the ancients basic astronomical knowledge, and that attitude is simply a sign of modern ignorance. Similarly, the mainstream linguists, in their decipherment of the hieroglyphs, have not paid any attention to the fact that the inventors of human writing had some "linguistic" knowledge - speech not just being merely invented in the last 200 years - and this basic "linguistic knowledge" is clearly incorporated into the symbols they created (see e.g. our next posting).

Scott Noegel, president of the American Research Center in Egypt's (ARCE) Northwest Chapter and associate professor, Department of New Eastern Languages and Civilizations, University of Washington states that
ancient Egyptian humor could be divided into at least five basic types. See the article to see what they are.

Vincent Jones, president of the ARCE Georgia Chapter - ARCE is the American Research Center in Egypt - is quoted as saying that: "I believe that their sense of humor was very similar to our own".

Along similar lines, Guillemette Andreu, curator of the Louvre's Egyptian collection, pointed out recently in a lecture that Egyptians also had excuses about not coming to work, including illness, getting married, and other matters.

So what is new?

Saturday, June 05, 2004

Lower Egypt Nome 2 - ANE BC P11


Lower Egypt Nome 2 - ANE BC P11

This posting expands on the previous presentation in the Ancient Egypt Blog CHEOPS explaining the Lower and Upper Nomes of Egypt as hermetic geodetic astronomy.
See explanation of the Lower Egypt Nomes and the Upper Egypt Nomes.
See also Lower Egypt Nome 2 (in English) and Egyptian Nomes (in German)

LOWER EGYPT NOME 2


2. Crater, Hm, something like "front side cut" and perhaps related to the later Arabic Al Hayyah "snake". The shape of the hieroglyph might mark the head of Hydra and that same constellation to its left including Sextans.

Update, June 14
The main city in the second lower nome of Egypt was Khem (Greek Letopolis, Arabic Ausim) viz. KhentyKhem. Khem will mark the lucida (brightest star) in Hydra, Alphard, at the neck of the water serpent, known as Suhel al Fard in Arabic but also as Suhel al Sham (RHA p. 249)- Sham (Ausim) will be Khem.

The hieroglyph used for this nome, according to Hannig, marks the innards, which in Latvian are the word ikris and this corresponds to the 7th Vedic nakshatra Acresha at Hydra (RHA p. 248).

Hence, the first lower nome marks the Summer Solstice and the second lower nome marks the front of Hydra from head to Crater.

Lower Egypt Nome 1 - ANE BC P10

Lower Egypt Nome 1 - ANE BC P10

This posting expands on the previous presentation in the Ancient Egypt Blog CHEOPS explaining the Egyptian Lower and Upper Nomes as hermetic geodetic astronomy.
See explanation of the Lower Egypt Nomes and the Upper Egypt Nomes.
See also Lower Egypt Nome 1 (in English) and Egyptian Nomes (in German)

LOWER EGYPT NOME 1


1. nu-Hydrae (below Leo), Jnbw-hd, "the white wall". The "white wall" and the "gnomon" mark the Summer Solstice.
Update, June 5, 2004
The capital of the 1st lower nome was Memphis. That a gnomon is intended by the nome hieroglyph can be seen from the variant hieroglyph of Memphis as the "king's castle" where the man is clearly holding a gnomon
.
See Hannig, ED1, p. 1547.

A gnomon at Memphis is also marked on the Turin Canon.

The goddess Hathor at Memphis, the "eye" of Ra (the sun - related to Indo-European, e.g. Latvian Re!, Redz! "sight, light") and goddess of the sky, had the epithet "of the southern sycamore", which might have referred to the stars of Crater below Leo. Crater is marked as a tree on the megaliths of Ancient Britain at Trethevy Quoit. However, Hathor is also affiliated with the 3rd nome of Lower Egypt so that this matter is unclear.

The Chinese sieu (lunar mansion, moon station) in Hydra called Lieu was seen as a "willow branch" in this part of the heavens, governing the planets and being "worshipped at festivals of the summer solstice as an emblem of immortality". RHA, p. 248.

Friday, June 04, 2004

Lower Egypt Nome 6 - ANE BC P9


Lower Egypt Nome 6 - ANE BC P9

see also Lower Egypt Nome 6 (in English) and Egyptian Nomes (in German)

Individual Nomes to be Analyzed

Starting with this posting we begin to add material to the previous postings on the Nomes of Egypt as hermetic geodetic astronomy.

Nomes of Upper and Lower Egypt

As the present posting does, we will now discuss only one nome at a time as a new separate post - but then we will also add that material to the comprehensive detail postings previously published for the Lower Egypt Nomes and the Upper Egypt Nomes. That way, those two latter permalinks will always contain all newly updated materials for all nomes even though those two postings will retain the initial old timestamp of May 26, 2004 - in spite of the fact that they contain newly added materials. These will be marked "Update", plus the date of the update.

LOWER EGYPT NOME 6


Lower Egypt Nome 6. V of Horns of Lupus, H3sww, "mountain bull".

This is the area of sky where the stars of Lupus (Indo-European, e.g. Latvian lops, lopis (luopis) "animal, beast, cattle, livestock") and Centaurus meet. The Centaur was the ancient Minoan bull, the Minotaur, and also "on the Euphrates it was considered a complete Bull", see Richard Hinckley Allen (RHA), Star Names, pp. 150-151 (Lupus made up the head and horns).

The capital city of the sixth lower nome is Buto [Buto (de)] (Tell el-Fara'in viz. Farain), also called Uto, Edjo, Wadjet (Per-Wadjet) or Wadjit.

Wadjet was the cobra goddess of ancient Egypt twined around a papyrus stem. See Encyclopaedia Britannica under "Buto". As RHA points out, the area of connection of Lupus and Centaurus was known to the Arabs as Al Kadb al Karm, "the Vine Branch", i.e. the twine around a papyrus stem.

RHA notes that this stellar area was also called Al Wazn "weight" in Arabic, surely related to the "ground and weight" (Hadar and Wazn) of ancient stars in this region. I show that stars in this region of the heavens were originally arranged in the form of the net of the fisherman at Lupus and Centaurus according to my decipherment of the megaliths of Scotland. The net explains the use of "ground and weight", as used in net construction.

These "twins" of ground and weight are Pe and Dep, the semi-mythical Predynastic capitals of Lower Egypt at Buto, which we now can see marked the stars above and below the ecliptic. The Pyramid Texts state that Pe marks kings of "Lower Egypt" whereas Dep marks the serpent.

The use of the serpent rather than the bull came from using Serpens Caput above the ecliptic rather than Lupus and Centaur below it to mark this region of the heavens.

The Muu dancers show Dep as wearing a crown [above the ecliptic] and Pe as wearing none. DEP will be Indo-European, e.g. Latvian DEB-ess "heaven".

We now know from the above analysis that not only the nomes but also the capital city of each nome were hermetic, with the capital - in an astronomical context - presumably marking the lucida - the brightest star in each stellar region.

This area of the heavens marked the Autumn Equinox in ca. 3000 BC, where the ecliptic and the celestial equator met. Buto has three mounds, but I do not know the shape formed by these three mounds as a unit, by which one should be able determine the astronomical location in the stars exactly in the predynastic megalithic period. Perhaps these oldest mounds marked the three front prominent stars of Scorpio, as at other megalithic sites, i.e. in a prong form. The mounds of course would have preceded the later cities.

Wednesday, May 26, 2004

The Nomes of Egypt and Astronomy - E - Lower Egypt Nomes Explained - ANE BC P8

The Nomes of Egypt and Astronomy - E - Lower Egypt Nomes Explained - ANE BC P8

This posting presents a detailed analysis of the Lower Egypt Nomes and their relation to Astronomy on the basis of the Hieroglyphs. Since Old Kingdom sources - as reflected in Hannig's Egyptian Dictionary I (ED1) - do not contain all of the Nomes of Lower Egypt, I refer to the Digital Egypt site (in English) and to the Meritneith site (in German) by Nadja Türk-Gothe for a representation of all the Nomes of Egypt, including those not found in Hannig's Dictionary of the Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period.

NOMES OF LOWER EGYPT and their HIEROGLYPHS EXPLAINED


1. nu-Hydrae (below Leo), Jnbw-hd, "the white wall". The "white wall" and the "gnomon" mark the Summer Solstice.

Update, June 5, 2004
The capital of the 1st lower nome was Memphis. That a gnomon is intended by the nome hieroglyph can be seen from the variant hieroglyph of Memphis as the "king's castle" where the man is clearly holding a gnomon
.
See Hannig, ED1, p. 1547.

A gnomon at Memphis is also marked on the Turin Canon.

The goddess Hathor at Memphis, the "eye" of Ra (the sun - related to Indo-European, e.g. Latvian Re!, Redz! "sight, light") and goddess of the sky, had the epithet "of the southern sycamore", which might have referred to the stars of Crater below Leo. Crater is marked as a tree on the megaliths of Ancient Britain at Trethevy Quoit.

The Chinese sieu (lunar mansion, moon station) in Hydra called Lieu was seen as a "willow branch" in this part of the heavens, governing the planets and being "worshipped at festivals of the summer solstice as an emblem of immortality". RHA, p. 248.


2. Crater, Hm, something like "front side cut" and perhaps related to the later Arabic Al Hayyah "snake". The shape of the hieroglyph might mark the head of Hydra and that same constellation to its left including Sextans.

Update, June 14
The main city in the second lower nome of Egypt was Khem (Greek Letopolis, Arabic Ausim) viz. KhentyKhem. Khem will mark the lucida (brightest star) in Hydra, Alphard, at the neck of the water serpent, known as Suhel al Fard in Arabic but also as Suhel al Sham (RHA p. 249)- Sham (Ausim) will be Khem.

The hieroglyph used for this nome, according to Hannig, marks the innards, which in Latvian are the word ikris and this corresponds to the 7th Vedic nakshatra Acresha at Hydra (RHA p. 248).

Hence, the first lower nome marks the Summer Solstice and the second lower nome marks the front of Hydra from head to Crater.


3. Corvus, jmntt, the Raven, read as the "West nome" by mainstream Egyptology.

Update, June 14

Corvus is known as the Raven in ancient astronomy and the Pharaonic hieroglyph is indeed a bird.

The main city in the 3rd lower nome of Egypt was Imu (Arabic Kom el-Hisn)
and its deity was noted as Hepy of Hut-Ihyt. These terms correspond to the early Arabic titles for Crater, with Imu = (?) Al Ajmal "the Camel" and Hepy = Al Hiba "the Tent". Corvus was known as Emansor (=Imu?) in early days (RHA p. 181). The Arabic name Kom el-Hisn for the main city Imu indicates a possible relation to the 11th Vedic nakshatra, Hasta (=Hisn?), marking the star Algorab. The Chinese 11th sieu - a lunar mansion - is similarly named as Kusam. (Yes, we think the systems are related in origin).


4. Spica in Virgo, nt, read by Egyptologists as "Southern shield", it is also possible that this is a reference to Centaurus and/or the Southern Cross, Crux, below Virgo. Centaurus was pictured with a shield in later eras. See Richard Hinckley Allen, Star Names, p. 151.

Update, June 16

Nomes 4 and 5 of Lower Egypt are the southern and northern parts of the "province" of Neit, divided after the Old Kingdom, and this large size makes it look as if Centaurus is intended rather than Spica and Virgo, Virgo being almost directly on the ecliptic, although the Arabic name for Virgo, Al Adhra al Nathifah (the innocent - or pure - maiden), may through Nath-ifah have given the name Neith to these two nomes, assigned to it by the Egyptologists.

The main city in Nome 4 is Tanta, which might be a variant of Kenta-urus, but this is speculation as there is no other evidence to support this conclusion as yet.

The idea of a "Southern Shield" has its comparable in Chinese astronomy where Nan Mun marked the lucida of the Centaur and was called the "South Gate".

RHA writes that alpha-Centauri was known as Serk-t in Egypt, but this seems not to explain the Sobek applied to it on the White Chapel (see Digital Egypt).


5. V-stars of Centaurus, Nt, "Northern shield", the stars which at theta-Centauri (Menkent) form the shape of a flower above the centaur.

Update, June 17

The major city of Nome 5 (and perhaps also 4) was Sau (Zau), in Greek Sais and in Arabic Sa al-Hagar. Zau and Hagar might be remnants of the names Wazn and Hadar, "Ground and Weight" applied to the stars alpha and beta-Centauri.


6. V of Horns of Lupus, H3sww, "mountain bull".

Update, June 4, 2004:
This is the area of sky where the stars of Lupus (Indo-European, e.g. Latvian lops, lopis (luopis) "animal, beast, cattle, livestock") and Centaurus meet. The Centaur was the ancient Minoan bull, the Minotaur, and also "on the Euphrates it was considered a complete Bull", see Richard Hinckley Allen (RHA), Star Names, pp. 150-151 (Lupus made up the head and horns). The capital city of the sixth lower nome is Buto [Buto (de)] (Tell el-Fara'in viz. Farain), also called Uto, Edjo, Wadjet (Per-Wadjet) or Wadjit - cobra goddess of ancient Egypt twined around a papyrus stem. See Encyclopaedia Britannica under "Buto". As RHA points out, the area of connection of Lupus and Centaurus was known to the Arabs as Al Kadb al Karm, "the Vine Branch", i.e. the twine around a papyrus stem. RHA notes that this stellar area was also called Al Wazn "weight" in Arabic, surely related to the "ground and weight" (Hadar and Wazn) of ancient stars in this region, showing these to be stars arranged in the form of the net of the fisherman at Lupus and Centaurus according to my decipherment of the megaliths of Scotland, the net explaining the use of "ground and weight", as used in net construction. These are Pe and Dep, the semi-mythical Predynastic capitals of Lower Egypt at Buto, which we now can see marked the stars above and below the ecliptic. The Pyramid Texts state that Pe marks kings of "Lower Egypt" whereas Dep marks the serpent.
The use of the serpent rather than the bull came from using Serpens Caput above the ecliptic rather than Lupus and Centaur below it. The Muu dancers show Dep as wearing a crown (above the ecliptic) and Pe as wearing none. DEP will be Indo-European, e.g. Latvian DEB-ess "heaven". We now know from the above analysis that not only the nomes but also the capital city of each nome were hermetic, with the capital astronomically marking the lucida - the brightest star in each stellar region.
This area of the heavens marked the Autumn Equinox in ca. 3000 BC, where the ecliptic and the celestial equator met. Buto has three mounds, but I do not know their shape, by which one should be able determine the astronomical location in the stars exactly in the predynastic megalithic period. Perhaps these oldest mounds marked the three front prominent stars of Scorpio, as at other megalithic sites.


7. West Harpoon of Scorpio, Hwj-gs-jmntj or W'm hww gs jmntj, "West harpoon nome".


8. Middle of Scorpio, Hwj or W'm hww j³btj, "East harpoon nome", this is Arabic Jabhat and stars in Scorpio are known as al Jabhah in Arabic (see Richard Hinckley Allen, Star Names, p. 3719.


9. Staff (Stinger) of Scorpio, 'ndtj, "Andjeti".


10. Corona Australis - Sagittarius, Km-wr, "Kem-wer", "black bull". The bull or ox is assigned to the area of Sagittarius and Capricorn in Chinese astronomy (see Richard Hinckley Allen, p. 139) and the area of Capricorn was known as Mriga, Makara viz. Makra "antelope, goat."


11. Start of Capricorn, Hsbw, "Hesbu", "counting of the bulls".


12. End of Capricorn, Tb-ntrt, "calf and cow". This marks the Winter Solstice at Algedi.


13. Aquarius. Hannig writes J3btj, "Jabet".


14. Front of Cetus - Diphda, Hntj-j3btj, "front Eastern nome".


15. Achernar - Phoenix, Dhwtj, "Djehuti".


16. Menkar in Cetus, H3t-mhjt, "First of the Fish"


17. Taurus - Aldebaran, Zm³-bhdt, "united Behedet". The united element refers to the crossing of the ecliptic and the celestial equator.


18. Front of Orion, Jmt, "Prince of the South".


19. Back of Orion - Sirius, Jmt-ph, "Prince of the North".


20. Puppis - Sirius, Pr-Spdw, "feather-crowned falcon of Sopdu". Sopdu here will be the same as Sopdet, Sirius, as the feather above Puppis.

21. No Nome - Break in the Milky Way
22. No Nome - Break in the Milky Way

Note that the presence of an Arabic term does not mean the hieroglyphs were originally read or pronounced that way for the mentioned astronomical terms, but it does mean that the Egyptologists are using later sources to derive the names of the hieroglpyhs.

Note that the scaffolding in the Nome hieroglyphs (the scaffolding has been removed in the graphics used here) marks something high up, i.e. the heavens. The hieroglyphs which define the stellar area described are then found inscribed on top of this scaffolding. We have such a scaffold pedestal on the Narmer Palette, for example, marking the Vernal Equinox in the figure of Anubis (my discovery).

The Nomes of Egypt and Astronomy - D - Upper Egypt Nomes Explained - ANE BC P7

The Nomes of Egypt and Astronomy - D - Upper Egypt Nomes Explained - ANE BC P7

This posting presents a detailed analysis of the Upper Egypt Nomes and their relation to Astronomy on the basis of the Hieroglyphs.

Nomes of UPPER EGYPT and their HIEROGLYPHS Explained


1. Chort / Duhr in Leo - Hannig writes T3-stj Taseti. In Arabic, the star Duhr is called Thahr Asad (according to Richard Hinckley Allen, Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning, Dover, New York, 1963, p. 260). Thahr Asad perhaps = Taseti. The hieroglyph - based on new readings of the hieroglyphs which will soon be presented on this blog - actually reads something like ShCh-r-te, i.e. Chort, viz. al H'aratan, which is similar to ancient Indo-European, e.g. Latvian Shchirt or Shchirtinja, (normally spelled with diacritical markings) meaning "divide, separation" - here marking the Summer Solstice, in 2430 BC, on a line passing from the North Ecliptic Pole, through the North Celestial Pole, through Mizar to the star Chort in Leo.


2. Canes Venatici - Hannig writes Wts-Hr "Wetjes-Hor" - Hor could be Chara, now one of the hounds of Canes Venatici.


3. Coma Berenices - Hannig writes Nhn "Nechen" (compare Arabic Nakkar for Boötes). The ancients seem to have known (had observed) that the North Galactic Pole was located in Coma Berenices, since they gave this otherwise unimportant constellation a great deal of attention. Essentially, Coma Berenices is ca. half way between the center of the galaxy at Sagitarrius and the break in the Milky Way at Vela on the opposite side. See e.g. the entry Galactic Latitude for a discussion of this matter online.

As Hannig writes, Hn-nhn "Chen-nechen" were the first seven nomes of upper Egypt, thus - according to our analysis - covering the time of year from the Summer Solstice to the Autumn Equinox. This hieroglyph is actually correctly read "Janini", the Indo-European, e.g. the Latvian term for "Midsummer". From this, we suspect that the correct reading of the other half of this hieroglyph (the hieroglyph of the Crown of the East, i3by) will have a value of spar- (wings), together with -nin giving thus the value of sparninsh "diminutive, wing(ed)", viz. "feathered" in Indo-European, e.g. Latvian. The Crown of the East signals the Autumn Equinox. See Upper Egypt nome 18 below for the Crown of the West on the opposite side of the heavens.


4. This is a Line marked by the end of the Handle of Ursa Major (the Big Dipper). Hannig writes W3st "Waset" which in Arabic means "middle" and indeed, the end "handle stars" of Ursa Major are very close to and mark the line to the North Celestial Pole - the Middle - in this era.


5. Boötes. Hannig writes Ntrwj "Netjerui". Richard Hinckley Allen writes at page 100 about Boötes:
"In India it was the 13th nakshatra, Svati ... perhaps Sword ... and known there also as Nishtya, Outcast ...."
Hence, Netjerui may be Nishtya, or Arabic Nakkar or Nekkar for Boötes. Possible is also that this marks the two small stars together in the vast starless expanse of Boötes, i.e. rho and sigma, known as Nadhlat in Arabic = Netjerui ?


6. Libra. Hannig writes Jqr "Iqer". The reason that they took a lizard here is that Libra is barely above the ecliptic, and it was known as Juga or Juka "weigh beam" in Sanskrit.


7. Corona Borealis. Hannig writes B3t - Ancient Arabic Al-feta for this constellation is perhaps related (see Allen p. 176).


8. Hercules. Hannig writes wr - The ancient Arabic name was al Ra'i.


9. Phallus of Hercules. Hannig writes Mnw "Menu" = Min = ancient constellation name Masym, which is like Indo-European, e.g. Latvian "mesha(m)" (thrower, ejaculator).


10. Serpens Cauda. Hannig writes W3dzt "Wadjit" - an Egyptian term for serpent - and the hieroglyph is a serpent. This is a very clear representation of Serpens Cauda.


11. Aquila - Altair. Hannig writes Sh3 "Sha". Allen notes the ancient Persian constellation Shahin and Sogdian Shad for Aquila.


12. Tail of Aquarius. Hannig writes 3tft Atfet. Earlier it was read dwft - it is probably Arabic Dalw "bucket", for Aquarius


13. Front of Pegasus. Hannig writes Ndft hntt "Front Nedjfit".


14. Back of Pegasus. Hannig writes Ndft phtt "Back Nedjfit". The hieroglyphs for "back" are written out at the 21st Nome of Upper Egypt and clearly read aste meaning "tail" in Indo-European, e.g. Latvian, although the general reading in Egyptology for this sign is phwj meaning "behind, after" which is the Indo-European, e.g. Latvian term pēc, pēcuo, pēcuot "behind, after, last, following". We find the similar voiced forms as Indo-European, e.g. Latvian beidz, "finish" and beidzuot "finally".


15. Cassiopeia. Hannig writes Snt "Unet". A hare is used as the symbol in the hieroglyph. In Latvian a vainags is a crown and the ears of the hare were seen as the crown on its head for which it was named. Cassiopeia is the crown in the astronomical context.


16. Camelopardalis Perseus. Hannig writes M3-hd "Ma-hedj". Since Perseus and Camelopardalis reach up to great heights in the sky, they are generally portrayed in astronomical systems with some kind of a high-reaching symbol, here apparently a mountain goat - in modern times a figure applied to neighboring Auriga.


17. Auriga. Anubis is shown as a dog with the hieroglyph of the Crown of the West (currently transcribed as wnmy) above him. The Crown of the West signals the Vernal Equinox.


18. Crossing Ecliptic : Celestial Equator. Hannig writes Pr-Nmtj "Nemti" where the older reading was c-ntj. In Latvian parnemti means "to take over, switch over". The Vernal Equinox takes place where the ecliptic and celestial equator meet, marked here by a bird with extremely long legs - rooted to the ground - but with wings open ready to fly, showing the separation of the celestial equator and ecliptic at this point.


19. Gemini. Hannig writes *W3bwj "Wabui". This is Latvian abie "both" and marks the two twins of Gemini, both explicitly marked as two staffs on the hieroglyph.


20. Front of the Cup of Ursa Major. Hannig writes N-c-rt hntt "front Noret". The name Noret is similar to the Latvian term "neriet" meaning stars that never set, i.e. circumpolar stars.

However - perhaps or perhaps not related here - as we shall see in future postings, the hieroglyph read in Egyptology as NTR is correctly read NRT and this has its root in the basic word Nahr, as in the Akkadian (Nahru), Hebrew (Nehar di Nur) and Arabic (Al Nahr), all terms for the Milky Way, the River of Heaven, i.e. the Sky of Stars. Narit- viz. Naritis would be diminutive forms, whence N viz. NR viz. NRT as the correct readings for the hieroglyph now read incorrectly as NTR.

We know that the hieroglyph NRT applied to the heavens because it is sometimes alternated in writing with the scaffolding hieroglyph - as a symbol of the heavens - upon which the signs of the Nomes were placed.

Nahr- is also the root origin of the name of NAR-MER, properly read as "ruler, on earth, under heaven" (where MER = Egypt"), a common epithet still documented by the Guanche or Canario peoples on the Canary Islands (Ca-NAR).


21. Back of the Cup of Ursa Major - Hannig writes N-c-rt pht "back Noret". Correct for "back" seems to be the reading aste "tail", i.e. back in this sense - see 14 above for an explanation of the term pēc which leads to the mainstream reading pht, here incorrect.


22. The Knife of Leo Minor. Hannig writes Mdnjt "Medenit" but the correct transcription of part of the hieroglyph reads l-t-sha which is Arabic Laduha for this constellation. The Indo-European, e.g. Latvian term for Mdnjt is Medniet- which means "of the hunter" so this is a hunter's knife.

Most Popular Posts of All Time

Our Websites and Blogs

3D Printing and More 99 is not 100 Aabecis AK Photo Blog Ancient Egypt Weblog Ancient Signs (the book) Ancient World Blog AndisKaulins.com Anthropomorphic Design Archaeology Travel Photos (blog) Archaeology Travel Photos (Flickr) Archaeo Pundit Arts Pundit Astrology and Birth Baltic Coachman Bible Pundit Biotechnology Pundit Book Pundit Chronology of the Ancient World Computer Pundit DVD Pundit Easter Island Script Echolat edu.edu Einstein’s Voice Energy Environment and Climate Blog Etruscan Bronze Liver of Piacenza EU Laws EU Legal EU Pundit FaceBook Pundit Gadget Pundit Garden Pundit Golf Pundit Google Pundit Gourmet Pundit Hand Proof HousePundit Human Migrations Idea Pundit Illyrian Language Indus Valley Script Infinity One : The Secret of the First Disk (the game) Jostandis Journal Pundit Kaulins Genealogy Blog Kaulinsium Kiel & Kieler Latvian Blog LawPundit.com Law Pundit Blog LexiLine.com LexiLine Group Lexiline Journal Library Pundit Lingwhizt LinkedIn Literary Pundit Magnifichess Make it Music Maps and Cartography Megalithic World Megaliths Blog Megaliths.net Minoan Culture Mutatis Mutandis Nanotech Pundit Nostratic Languages Official Pundit Phaistos Disc Pharaonic Hieroglyphs Photo Blog of the World Pinterest Prehistoric Art Pundit Private Wealth Blog PunditMania Quanticalian Quick to Travel Quill Pundit Road Pundit Shelfari Sky Earth Drones Sky Earth Native America SlideShare (akaulins) Sport Pundit Star Pundit Stars Stones and Scholars (blog) Stars Stones and Scholars (book) Stonehenge Pundit The Enchanted Glass Twitter Pundit UbiquitousPundit Vision of Change VoicePundit WatchPundit Wearable Technology Wizard WeTechWi Wine Pundit Word Pundit xistmz YahooPundit zistmz