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Sunday, March 19, 2006

The Tomb of Moses and Related Matters

Although not recognized as such by the Egyptologists, the Tomb of Moses was discovered by the team of Austrian archaeologist Manfred Bietak in the ancient Israelite city of Avaris (Tell el Dab'a) , which is found stratigraphically under the later Per Ramses, home of the Hebrews (Pi-Ramesse, which is the ancient land of Gath or Goshen, today called Giza).

Because of collossal errors in mainsteam chronology, this tomb is erroneously regarded by some scholars to be the tomb of Biblical Joseph, which is amusing, as the error in chronology is merely about 500 years.

In Avaris they found an extensive palace with an equally extensive garden in which they discovered a tomb which had been completely emptied in ancient days, which is a rarity, since graverobbers usually just take valuables, but leave the bodies untouched. Here the bodies had also been been removed.

What is unusual is that this particular graverobbery is documented in ancient Pharaonic records. This tomb at Avaris is none other than a tomb mentioned at the time of widespread grave plunderings during the reign of Ramses IX, a reign which marked the last death knells of Pharaonic civilization, when not even the ancient graves of kings were safe. It is in our opinion the tomb of Moses.

The robbing of the Tomb of Moses has come down to us in a papyrus which protocols the trial of certain "Amun-pnufer", who on the 22nd day of the winter month and in the 16th year of reign of Ramses IX confessed to robbing the grave of the king known erroneously to the Egyptologists as "Sobekemsaf II" and his wife "Nubchas". As written at gizapyramids.org :

"[T]]he 'Leopold-Amherst Papyrus' records the testimony of the thieves who plundered the tomb of King Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekem-saf II and Queen Nubkhas of the Seventeenth Dynasty.... The thieves confessed that they had broken into this tomb and had:
'found the noble mummy of the sacred king... [and] numerous golden amulets and ornaments were on his breast and a golden mask was over his face. The noble mummy of the king was entirely bedecked with gold and his coffins were embellished with gold and silver, both inside and out, and inlaid with precious stones. We collected the gold, together with the amulets and jewels that were about him and the metal that was on his coffins. We found the queen in the same state and retrieved all that we found upon her. Then we set fire to their coffins. We took the furnishings that were found with them, comprising objects of gold, silver and bronze, and divided the spoils amongst us.
' " [emphasis added]

Compare the royal pectoral found in the above cited article by Peter Lacovara, "An Ancient Egyptian Royal Pectoral" in the Journal of Fine Arts, Boston, Vol. 2, 1990, (dated to c. 1784-1570 B.C.) to the one found in the Tomb of Tuthankhamun. They are virtually identical.

As I have explained at the LexiLine website , Moses was the Pharaoh today transcribed by the Egyptologists as Sobek-emsaf II (also written Sebekemsaf). The statue of this king, which is the "Statue" of Moses - in black diorite - is in the Museum of Art History in Vienna but the base and feet are in the National Museum of Ireland in Dublin.

It is the statue of a man whose hieroglyphic name is transcribed - erroneously - by Egyptologists as Sobek-em-s-af, whereas the hieroglyphs "em-s" actually clearly read MOSHE (Moses). This is the same as Sechemre Schedtaui - also erroneously transcribed , the 1st King of Thebes of the 17th Dynasty, a reign dated by current chronology to ca. 1650-1600 B.C.

MOSES and the tale of ARTAPANUS
(See David Rohl's book, A Test of Time, Random House, London, 1995)

MOSES WAS BORN - writes Artapanus - in the reign of Chaneferre (Khenephres), known as Sobekhotep IV, who, even by current chronology, ruled ca. 1700 B.C. The current date assigned to the life of Moses by mainstream scholarship is supported by nothing, no evidence whatsover, and is typical for the kind of sloppy scholarship in this field which is rampant at the universities of the world.

Clemens' Stromata summarizes the writings of Artapanus, a Jewish historian who wrote Peri Iodaion (About the Jews). Artapanus is named by Eusebius in his Evangelicae Preparationis and his detailed account of the life of Moses is reported in his Pamphilis, Book 9, Ch. 27, 1-37.

That life story of MOSES agrees with the Egyptian "SINUHE Story" - which originated in the Pharaonic 12th Dynasty (!) at the time of A-MEN-EM-HET III, who we have identified as the Pharaoh of Exodus.

The story of Sinuhe is about a young man who flees Egypt (as does Moses), goes to Palestine (as does Moses), where Sinuhe finds the support of Prince Retenju just as Moses finds the help of the similarly named "Raguel" in Artapanus, and the help of of "Reguel" viz. "Jitro" in the Biblical Exodus (2,18; 3,1;4,18; 18,1). The stories are the same and date to ca. 1700 BC.

The Pharaoh who first "enslaved" the Hebrews, says Artapanus, was called PAL-MEN-O-THES and had a city and temple built at "Kessan" (as Rohl correctly notes, "Kes" in the eastern Delta) called "Kessan" in the Septuagint and "Goshen" in the Masora, which is generally equated with On, Heliopolis or Egyptian Iunu.

The statue of Moses (Sebekemsaf) was found at Armant, (Ar-Mant is related to Iunu-Month) which was greatly developed in the 12th dynasty.

Pharaoh PAL-MEN-O-THIS is surely the same as A-MEN-E(M)-HET(is) III out of that very same 12th dynasty. The first syllable has simply been mistranscribed by Egyptologists or Greeks.

It was during the 12th dynasty that territorial expansion against Kush and Nubia reached its peak, and the story of Moses tells us that he also campaigned against Nubia and Ethiopia in his youth.

In the chapters 71 to 78 of the apocryphal Book of Jasher , which gives a detailed account of the life of Moses, we find the mention of several pharaohs. Their equivalence (our discovery) to hieroglyphically documented personages is as follows:

- King of Africa (Egypt, Thebes) ANGEAS = the king today transcribed by Egyptologists as ANTEF

- King of Africa (Egypt, Thebes) AZDRUBAL (son of Angeas) = the king today transcribed by Egyptologists as MENTUHOTEP

As far as we can tell, there was only one ANTEF and one MENTUHOTEP, with the varied cartouched hieroglpyhs (no cartouches for the three known name variants of Mentuhotep) referring to the birth, ascension and death of each pharaoh. That is why the Antefs have only one tomb location - at Dira Abu 'n-Naga - and why only the tomb of Mentuhotep I has been found, because there are were no other kings named Menuhotep, only this one.

- King of Africa (Egypt, Thebes) ANIBAL (son of Angeas) = the king today transcribed by Egyptologists as AMENEMHET I.
It was Amenemhet who first called the Delta Region "Itj-taui". The Egyptologists think that the word applies to a specific place there, which they have thus far been unable to find, whereas, of course, it applies to the entire region.

The Pharaoh of Exodus was Amenemhet III (transcribed Pal-men-othis according to Artapanus, i.e. rather than A-men-othis) during whose reign two pyramids of mud brick were built, and these are the last pyramids ever built in Egypt, because the Hebrews left and sojourned to Per-Ramses.

Please note that "Africa" or "Egypt" in those days applied to THEBES but NOT to the Nile Delta region, which was called Judah (Itj-taui) , Sut/Shut, Gath or Goshen, whence its name today, Giza.

We have written as follows about the chronology of Moses as related to other events, e.g. the Solar Eclipse of April 16, 1699 BC during the reign of Sobekhotep IV Chaneferre:

"[This was a] Solar Eclipse at the Pleiades and the crossing of the ecliptic and the celestial equator underneath the gate to Heaven between Auriga and Perseus. The heiroglyphs mark this as a partial sun followed by the swallowing windpipe symbol. According to Artapanus (writing about 300 BC), Chaneferre - i.e. the Pharaoh just noted above - was the Pharaoh during whose reign
Moses was born. No contrary evidence gives us cause to doubt this historical record. Since Chaneferre apparently ruled only about 10 years, this puts the birth of Moses between maximally 10 years either side of 1699 BC, and we put it at 1707 BC due to the 80-year correlation to Exodus which we place as congruent with the explosion of Santorin ca. August 4, 1627 BC, based on astronomical considerations. Moses is later the first king of the 17th Dynasty of Thebes as Sobek-EMSAf II, a name actually written in the hieroglpyhs as "MO-SHE" (also known as Sobekhotep VIII or Sechem-re Schedtaui). Since we know that Moses flew from Thebes when he was around 40, this puts him in the Eastern Delta Region of Egypt ca. 1667 BC, where Moses's Biblical Midianites are none
other than the Hyksos, i.e. the Palestinians (nomadic desert dwellers), of whose king Moses takes one daughter as a wife. The 16th Dynasty King known as Anather is then Gideon (so also clearly readable according to the hieroglyphs as Hand-D-N i.e. GI-DI-N)."

Ramses II was King Solomon

Very few equivalences in ancient times are so certain as the equivalence of Ramses II with King Solomon. Indeed, no mainstream scholar has been able to present even the most minimal requisite evidence necessary to rebut my challenge to current chronology as posted at https://listhost.uchicago.edu/pipermail/ane/2003-July/009941.html

Egyptologists, Oriental and Biblical scholars do not like to be confronted with facts - rather, they continue to build their nice little houses of cards as if facts contrary to their ill-conceived theories and chronologies simply did not exist. The closed-minded majority of Egyptologists seem to have a limited capacity for critical thinking.

Just how long did Ramses reign? They assume it is 67 years of sole regency, but the evidence is against them.

It is quite clear that Ramses did not rule alone for 67 years but like Solomon only ruled 40 years as a sole regent.36 of these 40 years were peacefully ruled after his reaching the age 30 (when the 30-year ceremony was held). After the success of the battle (and peace) of Kadesh (which led to peace in the ancient Near East), Solomon could build the Temple in celebration, indeed 480 years after the Exodus from THEBES (= EGYPT, eTHEBETE) which in ancient times was "Egypt", whereas the Delta-region was "Judah" and so also was always marked on the ancient hieroglyphs, i.e. as SUTah (from Gardiner: su-plant phon: sw log: sut-rush (swt), king (nsw), see in this regard http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/people/gardiner/m.htm ).

It is a hieroglyph which the helpless Egyptologists now write totally incorrectly with a preceding N, even though the hieroglyphs place the N at the end - how foolish on the part of the scholars. The original Indo-European-based Pharaonic term is similar to the Baltic term SUTENIS which means "hot humid area, marshy region" i.e. the Nile Delta, and which is a homophonic term also for SUTNIS "envoy, ambassador", which the king of the Delta was in ancient days to this region. The N which the Egyptologists now artificially set in front of these hieroglyphs - in the totally faulty reading "nesubait" - is sheer idiocy, misunderstanding the placement of the Indo-European prefix no- as identical to Baltic no- ("from, off, out of, with, of, out of, etc.") in front of Pharaonic viz. similar Baltic words sach as SUT- "to send", whence SUTNIS "envoy, ambassador" and NOSUTIT "to send off" but also SVET- "holy" and whence NOSVET- "holy of, to celebrate something holy" and ZIB "to shine" whence NOZIBET "to flash, twinkle", with the latter accounting for the NESUBAIT of "star names" of the Pharaohs. What the Egyptologists have made of this simple grammatical Indo-European construction is an Alice in Wonderland creation wondrous to be behold for its lack of relation to actual reality.

But to return to the matter at hand. There is in fact substantial evidence - acknowledged but ignored by the mainstreamers - that the early years of rule of Ramses II were a coregency with Sethos (King David), whose daughter he married (as Solomon also married the daughter of the pharaoh). Is it not remarkable that a Jewish king is marrying into the royal "Egyptian" Pharaonic family, which allegedly was not Jewish - come on, what nonsense is that? The scholars are clueless.

It was during the rule of Sethos (Seti, Setoy, i.e. King David) that the war and conquering took place. Ramses did not rule for 67 years ALONE but rather ruled 27 in coregency with King David and then ruled 40 years alone. Indeed, Clayton in Chronicle of the Pharaohs writes that Ramses took sole regency at age 25. These ca. 40 years of sole regency by Ramses II (i.e. King Solomon) were also peaceful (except for the battle of Kadesh) and marked the greatest period of building by any pharaoh since the days of the pyramids - this was the reign of Solomon (Ramses II, i.e RA-Messias "born of the Sun") and such an era of construction could only have occurred in a time of peace.

One should also point out in this connection that Ramses had already married two of his wives ten years before he became the sole Pharaoh, which, presuming that he became sole regent at the age of 27, would have meant that he was 17 at the time of first marriage, which makes sense, given the age at which it made biological sense for a man to take a woman for a wife.As written at http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/ancientegyptianpeople.htm:

"Ramesses II probably married the first two principal wives at least ten years prior to the death of his father, Seti I, before Ramesses II actually ascended the throne."

Ramses as Solomon thus ruled only 40 years ALONE (36 years of peace) plus 27 as coregent, during the war period.

More Evidence on the Age and Reign of Ramses II (who was King Solomon)

The Abydos Stela of Ramses IV refers to Ramses II as "living" 67 years. 'The Abydos stela of Ramses IV reads, according to this website as follows:"those things which King Ramses II, the Great God, did for thee in his sixty-seven years".

This is the main source for the idea that Ramses II reigned for 67 years, but it is quite clear from the context that these 67 years apply to the length of his life.

Anniversary Feasts celebrated by Ramses II point to a reign of 40 years. According to the table of important dates of Ramses' life in Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, the FIRST anniversary feast (for the celebration of Ramses II sole ascension to the throne) took place 25 years AFTER the oldest date given, which can only be his birth, and NOT, as Clayton writes, the begin of his sole reign. He celebrated 13 such anniversaries during his reign, each of which - not understood by the Egyptologists - took place every 3 years = 39 years, and there was no 14th anniversary celebrated, so that Ramses ruled ca. 40 years, as did Solomon.

The term Egypt in ancient sources referred to THEBES and not to the Nile Delta region. I repeat again for the naysayers that in the ancient texts EGYPT was THEBES but did not include the NILE DELTA which was GATH, JUDAH, SUT viz. GOSHEN, from which the GIZA plateau takes its name. That knowledge is necessary to mesh the hieroglyphic and Biblical accounts together as one.

As I have written here at the LexiLine website (with some new corrections to the text):

WHERE WAS JUDAH?

An analysis of the the ancient terms Shihor, Yamsuf (Jamsuf), Idj-Taui and Fayyum (Fay-yum) gives us a clear answer.

SHIHOR (Nile waters of the Nile Delta plus Fayyum)

SHIHOR or SCHIHOR in Joshua 13,3 defines a water "flowing before Egypt" and Isaiah 23,3 mentions Shihor in connection with the Nile.

I Chronicles 13,5 states that the Kingdom of David (!) extended from the Shihor of Egypt to the road to Hamat (the land of the Hittites).

Fayyum (Lake Fayyum, viz. Fayoum) and Bahr Yusuf (the correct Biblical Beersheba)

In Egyptian sources Shihor referred to the waters of the Nile Delta together with Lake Fajum (Fayyum) INTO WHICH the ancient channel of the Nile flowed (today this is the canal Bahr Yusuf = Biblical Beersheba, i.e. Bahr (yu)SUF. (Sivan in his work on North Semitic dialects says that the yu syllable was added in later Semitic and was not a part of the word originally). Hellenistic sources say it WAS an arm of the Nile.

Scholars think that the Kingdom of David, i.e. Judah, ended at what is modern (non-biblical) Beersheba in current Israel.That unproven assumption is the greatest historical geographic error ever committed and runs directly contrary to the actual written sources available. Judah included Fayyum.

Jam Suf (the Sea of Reeds)

In Biblical Exodus, Fayyum is Hebrew JAM SUF "the sea of reeds" which can ONLY be Fayyum (the only sea of reeds in Egypt) and SUF is the place where Moses repeated "the law" to the children of Israel.

THE SOUTHERN TRIBES

Judah and Benjamin (the southern tribes which united as Judah) were only 2 of the 12 tribes of the Hebrews and the other 10 tribes rebelled at the time of Rehoboam (Merentptah), Jerobeam (Priam, King of Lydia (Troy)) and Ramses III (Shishak). The invasion of the sea peoples during the reign of Ramses III was part of the Trojan War.

The name Israel derives from an Indo-European term similar e.g. to the example of Latvian Izrauji "rebels".

When we speak in modern times about Israel and the Jews, we have completely FORGOTTEN about Judah which in fact is the more important of the two historically because it existed prior to the name "Israel" ever appearing on any monument. The first appearance of the name "Israel" on any monument occurred on the Merenptah Stela of defeated enemies.

Idj-TauiJudah was Idj-taui (= Ju-dah)

IDJ-TAUI was the Nile Delta, including Per-Ramses (Pi-Ramesse), historically the home of the Hebrews in what we "today" call "Egypt", but which was actually the Nile Delta region called Judah (SUT viz. SHUT) in ancient days.

JUDAH in hieroglyphic writing is symbolized by the raised cobra hieroglyph, DJD.

Judah's geographical boundaries extended from Hebron (city of the unification of Judah and Israel)to the "Brook of Egypt", i.e. the Nile arm at Fayyumand to Beer Es Sebua = Bahr Yusuf - the ancient channel of the Nile into Fayyum.

It was at Fayyum that the last pyramids were built, two of them alone for Amenemhet III (one at Dashur and other at Hawara), with the end of this overdone pyramid-building period marked by the sudden abandonment of the worker-city Kahun. Our explanation is that the workers had had enough of Amenemhet III and that was the end of the pyramid-building age. No more pyramids were ever built. Amenemhet was thus the Pharaoh of Exodus.

The era of Moses (who is found in the hieroglyphs erroneously transcribed by the Egyptologists as Sobekhotep II) and his short-term allies, the Hyksos (Palestinians, Midians) had dawned.

The Mystery of Nefertiti (Nofretete) Solved

We are all familiar with the famous bust of Nofretete (Nefertiti in neo-Egyptological garble).
Who was this woman? Who was she?

Mark Rose in "Where's Nefertiti?", a book review of Joann Fletcher's The Search for Nefertiti: The True Story of an Amazing Discovery, William Morrow & Co., comments on the alleged find of Nefertiti's mummy in tomb KV35, where Joann Fletcher has allegedly identified the "Younger Woman" in that tomb as Nefertiti. Priority to this identification is disputed by a certain Marianne Luban, who is thus equally in error in falsely identifying this mummy as Nefertiti, since the mummy is a male according to DNA evidence (En Route to the Truth by Mark Rose).

Truly, most of these accounts of Nefertiti's life, identity and mummy are more or less empty speculations, as also Joyce Tyldesley's book, Nefertiti: Egypt's Sun Queen, and quite typical for Egyptology, where rampant speculation is the rule, rather than the exception.

Mark Rose writes:

"The mummy in question was found in 1898 in a sidechamber in the tomb of Amenhotep II, which is designated KV35 in the numbering system for the Valley of the Kings. With the "Younger Woman" (as it is known) were two other mummies (a male youth and the "Elder Woman). All three had been partially dismantled by looters. In another sideroom were nine royal mummies that had been taken from their original tombs and been rewrapped and moved to KV35 by 20th Dynasty priests. Two other mummies, that of Amenhotep II and a unidentified male, and two skulls complete KV35's human inventory."

Who are the mummies found in Tomb KV35 and why do the Egyptologists have so much difficulty in identifying who they were?

To answer that question we first have to correct the Egyptologist's false transcription of Nefertiti's name, originally rendered as Nofretete and now given in "neo-Egyptology" as Nefertiti. Both versions are hopelessly wrong.The correct transcription of the hieroglyphic name of Nefertiti, as we have discovered, is in fact Chetite, i.e. the name means the Hittite Queen, a name which makes sense since at this time there is a flurry of letter exchanges to and from this region, the so-called "Amarna Letters". (Explanation: the hieroglypgh NFR as in NEFERtiti means "breath in the throat", so it is not meant to write NFR out as part of the name, but rather to render it as a "rasping throaty breath" sound.)

We know that Echnaton (=Akhenaten, who is King Saul) obtained a Queen of the Amazons from around the Black Sea as his wife (this was Nefertiti). She was the HITTITE QUEEN. Indeed, when Saul died, it was Nefertiti, under the name Ankhesenamun (= Ahinoam, A(nkh)-he-noam) who asked for a Hittite son to be King of Egypt:

"According to Hittite history, it was during the seige of Carchemish that Suppiluliumas received a message from widowed Queen Ankhesenamun, asking him for one of his sons to be king of Egypt."

Nefertiti was the wife of Echnaton (neo-Egyptological Akhenaten), both wrongly transcribed. Echnaton is actually King Saul of the Bible. Echnaton is Ish-Naton "father Nathan" and his (i.e. Saul's) son Jonathan is "young Nathan", Jo-Naton, so that these were Nathan Sr. and Nathan Jr. One could also view the names as being old (n)Aton and young Aton. Nathan in Hebrew means "gift of God" and compares to Adonis or Adonija.

The name "Saul" was applied biblically to the "Sun King" because Saul is an Indo-European term for "sun", as in the Latvian term Saule meaning "sun". King Saul viz. Echnaton viz. Akhenaten was a sun worshipper and became known to us as the first monotheistic king for this solar worship, which was presumably imported by his Hittite wife.

Nefertiti (correctly "Chetite") is rendered in the Bible as Ahinoam ("daughter of Ahi"), and Ahi was the Egyptian vizier, a Hittite, now transcribed as Ay:

"Nefertiti's origins are confusing. It has been suggested ... that Tiy was also her mother. Another suggestion is that Nefertiti was Akhenaten's cousin. Her wet nurse was the wife of the vizier Ay, who could have been Tiy's brother. Ay sometimes called himself "the God's father," suggesting that he might have been Akhenaten's father-in-law."

As we have discovered, Ay is equivalent to the Biblical priest Ahimaaz, who was the father of Ahinoam (Biblical scholars err in thinking there are two different personages: Ahimaaz, the father of Ahinoam, and also Ahimaaz (Achimas) the son of Zadok - both are the same):

"Ahimaaz: 1. The father Ahinoam, the wife of Saul (1 Sam. 14:50).... 2. The son and successor of Zadok in the office of highpriest (1 Chr. 6:8, 53). On the occasion of the revolt of Absalom he remained faithful to David, and was of service to him in conveying to him tidings of the proceedings of Absalom in Jerusalem (2 Sam. 15:24-37; 17:15-21). He was swift of foot, and was the first to carry to David tidings of the defeat of Absalom, although he refrained, from delicacy of feeling, from telling him of his death (2 Sam. 18:19-33)."

Noam in Hebrew means "pleasant, gentle, sweet, kind, and tender" and noam is actually the "male" version of no'omi, i.e. Naomi, so that a later Biblical gender change has occurred in this name. Nefertiti is translated similarly by the Egyptologists as "the beautiful one". Ahinoam is translated as "brother of pleasantness" which of course can not be right since this is a female. Accordingly, the name of the Hittite Queen was NAOMI "the pleasant one".

Biblical scholars also err in thinking that there are two Ahinoams, i.e. Naomis, one Ahinoam as the wife of Saul and Ahinoam of Jezreel (Israel) as the wife of David. Obviously, these are one and the same person, as David took the wife of Saul (Nefertiti) into his court upon Saul's death.

Hence, it is quite clear from the above analysis that the "Elder Woman" [Mummy 61070, as cataloged by the Egyptian Museum in Cairo] from tomb KV35 is Nefertiti, as correctly suggested by Susan E. James in her 2003 KMT article (Susan E. James, In a "Secret Chamber" in the Valley of the Kings: Dueling "Nefertitis"!, KMT, a Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt, 2003, Vol 14(3), pp. 22-29).

That mummy is not, as generally and erroneously believed to be, Queen Tiye, the wife of Amenhotep III. Rather the Elder Woman in KV35 is Naomi, the Hittite Queen, known to us as Nofretete or Nefertiti.

We also make here an aside on the only female Pharaoh: We agree with Donald P. Ryan that the reddish-blonde haired mummy of a woman found on the floor of Tomb 60 is Hatshepshut, together with her half-sister Neferura, the other female mummy found there. According to our research Hatshepshut is the Biblical Deborah who is called the woman of Lapidoth, a term erroneously assumed by some to be her husband, but elsewhere the term Lapidoth is correctly interpreted as "woman of fiery spirit", and is thus a reference to her red hair. Ramses II was also red-haired. The Pharaohs of Egypt definitely did not originally come from Egypt.

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