The Nomes of Egypt and Astronomy - D - Upper Egypt Nomes Explained - ANE BC P7
This posting presents a detailed analysis of the Upper Egypt Nomes and their relation to Astronomy on the basis of the Hieroglyphs.
Nomes of UPPER EGYPT and their HIEROGLYPHS Explained
1. Chort / Duhr in Leo - Hannig writes T3-stj Taseti. In Arabic, the star Duhr is called Thahr Asad (according to Richard Hinckley Allen, Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning, Dover, New York, 1963, p. 260). Thahr Asad perhaps = Taseti. The hieroglyph - based on new readings of the hieroglyphs which will soon be presented on this blog - actually reads something like ShCh-r-te, i.e. Chort, viz. al H'aratan, which is similar to ancient Indo-European, e.g. Latvian Shchirt or Shchirtinja, (normally spelled with diacritical markings) meaning "divide, separation" - here marking the Summer Solstice, in 2430 BC, on a line passing from the North Ecliptic Pole, through the North Celestial Pole, through Mizar to the star Chort in Leo.
2. Canes Venatici - Hannig writes Wts-Hr "Wetjes-Hor" - Hor could be Chara, now one of the hounds of Canes Venatici.
3. Coma Berenices - Hannig writes Nhn "Nechen" (compare Arabic Nakkar for Boötes). The ancients seem to have known (had observed) that the North Galactic Pole was located in Coma Berenices, since they gave this otherwise unimportant constellation a great deal of attention. Essentially, Coma Berenices is ca. half way between the center of the galaxy at Sagitarrius and the break in the Milky Way at Vela on the opposite side. See e.g. the entry Galactic Latitude for a discussion of this matter online.
As Hannig writes, Hn-nhn "Chen-nechen" were the first seven nomes of upper Egypt, thus - according to our analysis - covering the time of year from the Summer Solstice to the Autumn Equinox. This hieroglyph is actually correctly read "Janini", the Indo-European, e.g. the Latvian term for "Midsummer". From this, we suspect that the correct reading of the other half of this hieroglyph (the hieroglyph of the Crown of the East, i3by) will have a value of spar- (wings), together with -nin giving thus the value of sparninsh "diminutive, wing(ed)", viz. "feathered" in Indo-European, e.g. Latvian. The Crown of the East signals the Autumn Equinox. See Upper Egypt nome 18 below for the Crown of the West on the opposite side of the heavens.
4. This is a Line marked by the end of the Handle of Ursa Major (the Big Dipper). Hannig writes W3st "Waset" which in Arabic means "middle" and indeed, the end "handle stars" of Ursa Major are very close to and mark the line to the North Celestial Pole - the Middle - in this era.
5. Boötes. Hannig writes Ntrwj "Netjerui". Richard Hinckley Allen writes at page 100 about Boötes:
"In India it was the 13th nakshatra, Svati ... perhaps Sword ... and known there also as Nishtya, Outcast ...."
Hence, Netjerui may be Nishtya, or Arabic Nakkar or Nekkar for Boötes. Possible is also that this marks the two small stars together in the vast starless expanse of Boötes, i.e. rho and sigma, known as Nadhlat in Arabic = Netjerui ?
6. Libra. Hannig writes Jqr "Iqer". The reason that they took a lizard here is that Libra is barely above the ecliptic, and it was known as Juga or Juka "weigh beam" in Sanskrit.
7. Corona Borealis. Hannig writes B3t - Ancient Arabic Al-feta for this constellation is perhaps related (see Allen p. 176).
8. Hercules. Hannig writes wr - The ancient Arabic name was al Ra'i.
9. Phallus of Hercules. Hannig writes Mnw "Menu" = Min = ancient constellation name Masym, which is like Indo-European, e.g. Latvian "mesha(m)" (thrower, ejaculator).
10. Serpens Cauda. Hannig writes W3dzt "Wadjit" - an Egyptian term for serpent - and the hieroglyph is a serpent. This is a very clear representation of Serpens Cauda.
11. Aquila - Altair. Hannig writes Sh3 "Sha". Allen notes the ancient Persian constellation Shahin and Sogdian Shad for Aquila.
12. Tail of Aquarius. Hannig writes 3tft Atfet. Earlier it was read dwft - it is probably Arabic Dalw "bucket", for Aquarius
13. Front of Pegasus. Hannig writes Ndft hntt "Front Nedjfit".
14. Back of Pegasus. Hannig writes Ndft phtt "Back Nedjfit". The hieroglyphs for "back" are written out at the 21st Nome of Upper Egypt and clearly read aste meaning "tail" in Indo-European, e.g. Latvian, although the general reading in Egyptology for this sign is phwj meaning "behind, after" which is the Indo-European, e.g. Latvian term pēc, pēcuo, pēcuot "behind, after, last, following". We find the similar voiced forms as Indo-European, e.g. Latvian beidz, "finish" and beidzuot "finally".
15. Cassiopeia. Hannig writes Snt "Unet". A hare is used as the symbol in the hieroglyph. In Latvian a vainags is a crown and the ears of the hare were seen as the crown on its head for which it was named. Cassiopeia is the crown in the astronomical context.
16. Camelopardalis Perseus. Hannig writes M3-hd "Ma-hedj". Since Perseus and Camelopardalis reach up to great heights in the sky, they are generally portrayed in astronomical systems with some kind of a high-reaching symbol, here apparently a mountain goat - in modern times a figure applied to neighboring Auriga.
17. Auriga. Anubis is shown as a dog with the hieroglyph of the Crown of the West (currently transcribed as wnmy) above him. The Crown of the West signals the Vernal Equinox.
18. Crossing Ecliptic : Celestial Equator. Hannig writes Pr-Nmtj "Nemti" where the older reading was c-ntj. In Latvian parnemti means "to take over, switch over". The Vernal Equinox takes place where the ecliptic and celestial equator meet, marked here by a bird with extremely long legs - rooted to the ground - but with wings open ready to fly, showing the separation of the celestial equator and ecliptic at this point.
19. Gemini. Hannig writes *W3bwj "Wabui". This is Latvian abie "both" and marks the two twins of Gemini, both explicitly marked as two staffs on the hieroglyph.
20. Front of the Cup of Ursa Major. Hannig writes N-c-rt hntt "front Noret". The name Noret is similar to the Latvian term "neriet" meaning stars that never set, i.e. circumpolar stars.
However - perhaps or perhaps not related here - as we shall see in future postings, the hieroglyph read in Egyptology as NTR is correctly read NRT and this has its root in the basic word Nahr, as in the Akkadian (Nahru), Hebrew (Nehar di Nur) and Arabic (Al Nahr), all terms for the Milky Way, the River of Heaven, i.e. the Sky of Stars. Narit- viz. Naritis would be diminutive forms, whence N viz. NR viz. NRT as the correct readings for the hieroglyph now read incorrectly as NTR.
We know that the hieroglyph NRT applied to the heavens because it is sometimes alternated in writing with the scaffolding hieroglyph - as a symbol of the heavens - upon which the signs of the Nomes were placed.
Nahr- is also the root origin of the name of NAR-MER, properly read as "ruler, on earth, under heaven" (where MER = Egypt"), a common epithet still documented by the Guanche or Canario peoples on the Canary Islands (Ca-NAR).
21. Back of the Cup of Ursa Major - Hannig writes N-c-rt pht "back Noret". Correct for "back" seems to be the reading aste "tail", i.e. back in this sense - see 14 above for an explanation of the term pēc which leads to the mainstream reading pht, here incorrect.
22. The Knife of Leo Minor. Hannig writes Mdnjt "Medenit" but the correct transcription of part of the hieroglyph reads l-t-sha which is Arabic Laduha for this constellation. The Indo-European, e.g. Latvian term for Mdnjt is Medniet- which means "of the hunter" so this is a hunter's knife.
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