Saturday, October 15, 2005
"Zum Ursprung des Horus-Glaubens im vordynastischen Ägypten"
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in Predynastic Egypt - Page 32
The world tree of this relief palette marks the line of the winter-solstice. The bird, a falcon, marks Ursa Minor. The crocodile is the early Egyptian symbol for the constellation Draco, as also carved as a lizard on Rock 11 of the Extern Stones in Germany.
Found additionally on the relief palette are two antelopes. The ibis and antelope symbolized the constellation Capricorn, where the winter-solstice occurred ca. 3000 B.C.
That the antelopes on the palette portray the stars of Capricorn is found confirmed by Richard Hinckley Allen. Allen writes about the stars of Capricorn:
"It was thus shown [as a goat] on some Egyptian zodiacs; although on that of Denderah it appears in its double form, where "an ibis-headed man rides on Capricornus...."
Jewish Rabbis asserted that the tribe of Naphtali adopted this sign as their banner emblem, -"Naphtali is a hind let loose," - as if Capricorn were a deer, or antelope...."
Figure 24: Protodynastic Falcon on a Falcon Standard
We finish with a quotation about the falcon’s role in ancient Egypt (our translation):
"Already in the Protodynastic period, the king is represented on official monuments, palettes and relief-designed mace-heads, all fronted by the Horus falcon standard bearers. This is a group of usually four priests carrying four long standards surmounted by carved figures of their gods.
The [above pictured] small falcon is a miniature version of such a carved top of a standard, as evidenced by the original hole on its underside. On the basis of its ducked posture, this falcon belongs to the oldest known falcon representations, whose evolution over time is substantiated unbroken by the oldest inscriptions. From the "falcon name" of a prehistoric ruler, the oldest title of kings developed, Falcon = Horus."
It is a title of kings, taken from the stars.
 Richard Hinckley Allen, Star Names, Dover, NY, 1963, p. 138.
 Alfred Grimm and Sylvia Schoske, Am Beginn der Zeit, Ägypten in der Vor- und Frühzeit; Ausstellungskatalog, Heft 9, Schriften aus der Ägyptischen Sammlung (SAS); München, Staatliches Museum Ägyptischer Kunst, 24.12. 2000 - 22.4.2001, .p. 41.
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 31
Another confirmation of our analysis is provided by a "Relief Palette Fragment", found today in the Egyptian Museum in Berlin, pictured in Grimm and Schoske, Am Beginn der Zeit: [At the Beginning of Time]:
Figure 23: Protodynastic Palette Relief Fragment – SAS, Munich
This palette relief fragment shows the classic symbols of the summer solstice ca. 3000 B.C. The sun is represented as a round circle, flanked by two lions with overlong but not intertwined necks. Grimm and Schoske write: (our translation) "the upper part is formed by a reclining ungulate." This ungulate [hoofed animal], a bull, represents the constellation Ursa Major. In later times, this was portrayed only by a bull shank (lower leg).
That ungulate is shown in reverse on the palette back side. That makes sense, since we are then viewing Ursa Major from the other side. The ribs of the bull correspond to the fence-like enclosures on other artifacts, as found on the serekhs.
 Alfred Grimm and Sylvia Schoske, Am Beginn der Zeit, Ägypten in der Vor- und Frühzeit; Ausstellungskatalog, Heft 9, Schriften aus der Ägyptischen Sammlung (SAS); München, Staatliches Museum Ägyptischer Kunst, 24.12. 2000 - 22.4.2001, p. 37.
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 30
10. Other Supporting Evidence: We have come Full Circle
A strong indicator of the correctness of our previous calendric interpretations relating to Narmer and Khasekhemwy is the so-called "Chronology Tablet" (Jahrestafel) of Narmer.
Figure 22: Chronology Tablet (Jahrestafel) of Narmer
The portrayed "deceased" represents the bygone years. Narmer is heaven’s pole, accompanied by important constellations. The @-shaped signs meant 60 rather than 100 in early Egypt, so 180 years have elapsed prior to Narmer [and the arrival of the followers of Horus in Egypt], giving us the year ca. 3300 B.C. for Dynasty 0, which corresponds well to the archaeological findings.
 Alfred Grimm and Sylvia Schoske, Am Beginn der Zeit, Ägypten in der Vor- und Frühzeit; Ausstellungskatalog, Heft 9, Schriften aus der Ägyptischen Sammlung (SAS); München, Staatliches Museum Ägyptischer Kunst, 24.12. 2000 - 22.4.2001, p. 3.
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 29
9. The Cult of Horus, the Falcon, after Calendar-Reform
The falcon serekhs were retained by the Pharaohs up to Pharaoh Huni (Kerperis), the last king of the 3rd Dynasty. Thereafter, the Pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty, the astronomy-oriented pyramid builders, began to write their names into round, modernly so-called cartouches. These were based on the Pharaonic shen-Ring rather than the falcon serekh.
The shen has been described as a round rope without start or end, as a symbol for eternity. This ring is often represented as being in the clutches of Horus, the falcon, or Mut, the vulture, who hover over it as protectors:
"[Shen is a] loop of rope that has no beginning and no end, it symbolized eternity. The sun disk is often depicted in the center of it. The shen also seems to be a symbol of protection. It is often seen being clutched by deities in bird form, Horus the falcon, Mut the vulture. Hovering over Pharaohs head with their wings outstretched in a gesture of protection. The word shen comes from the word "shenu" which means "encircle," and in its elongated form became the cartouche which surrounded the king's name."
Maria Carmela Betrò writes in this regard (we translate the German):
"Already in the representations of the 1. Dynasty, where the shen ring is still empty inside, the gods extend the magic ring to the Pharaoh. Very soon, however, at the end of the 2nd Dynasty and the beginning of the 3rd Dynasty, one begins to write the mundane name of the king within the ring."
The cartouche thus represents heaven’s precessional "circulating" center and gradually replaces the falcon serekh of Ursa Minor. In his book, Der Sturz des göttlichen Falken [Fall of the Godly Falcon], Peter H. Schulze writes (we translate from the German) that "Ever since the 3rd Dynasty, Rê...more and more took the place of Horus as the god of the world and creation...so that its appearance in the title of the king was logical...." Schulze refers to an old Egyptian papyrus (our translation):
Behold, he who was interred as a falcon [the embodiment of Horus],
is torn from his coffin....
Behold, things have gone so far,
that the powerful serpent diadem of Rê [Uräus on the king’s crown] has fallen.
Both the heavens as well as the calendar of seasons had shifted. The era of the falcon was gone.
 See Richard Deurer, Egyptian Symbols and Definitions, Egypt and Art.
 Maria Carmelo Betrò, Heilige Zeichen, Gustav Lübbe Verlag, Bergisch Gladbach, 1996, p. 195, originally as Geroglifici, Arnoldo Mondadori, Mailand, available also in English as Hieroglyphics.
 Peter H. Schulze, Der Sturz des göttlichen Falken: Revolution im Alten Ägypten, Pawlak Verlag, Herrsching, 1986.
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 28
The two circular @-shaped hieroglyphs over the nine decimal hieroglyphs for the decimal 1s (ones) are read incorrectly twice by the Egyptologists. On the one hand, they erroneously see these hieroglyphs as a decimal part of the number below. That is wrong. If these two hieroglyphs were integral parts of that number, the Pharaohs would have written them that way. The Egyptologists argue that the unusual numeric Pharaonic notation found here was thus adopted for "reasons of beauty". Nonsense.
Erroneous is also the reading of the @-shaped hieroglyphs as 100’s, which in fact they were in much later dynasties. Here they stand for 60’s, i.e. 2 x 60 days = 120 intercalary (leap) days. It appears as if this hieroglyph might derive from the similar Sumerian numeric symbol for 60 (or vice versa). We must emphasize that there is no dispute with the fact that the @-shaped hieroglyph represented 100s and that the nail-formed hieroglyph represented 10000s, but in much later dynasties. However, in Khasekhemwy’s day, these numbers were not yet decimally standardized. In 2638 B.C., their decimal value depended on their placement only.
Duncan J. Melville writes that the Sumerian locking of symbols to specific fixed decimal place values occurred only at the end of the 3rd millennium B.C. (2000 B.C.). Prior to that, there was much variation:
"By about 3000 BC, the Sumerians were drawing images of tokens on clay tablets....
Ten cones equaled one small circle, six small circles equaled one big cone, ten big cones was a big cone with a circle inside it, six of those was a large circle and ten large circles was given by a large circle with a small circle inside...."
[Here we have a drawing similar to one in Melville at this juncture:]
"... a single sign might be used in several systems, where it could mean different multiples of the base unit. In particular, the small circle could mean 6, 10 or 18 small cones, depending on context....
The final step in this story, occurring probably some time in the Ur III period, right at the end of the third millennium, was the introduction of a sexagesimal place value system.
The price paid [for this system] was that a vertical wedge could now mean 1, or 60 (6x10), or 3600 (60x60), and so on. Its actual value was determined by its place." [emphasis added]
Surely it was similar in the Old Kingdom of the Pharaohs. 4 – 7 – 9.
 See Duncan J. Melville, Bibliography of Mesopotamian Mathematics and Duncan J. Melville, Sumerian metrological numeration systems.
 Duncan J. Melville, Sumerian metrological numeration systems.
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 27
The casualties that are portrayed at the side of the pedestal to Khasekhemwy’s statue symbolize the dead, expired years. It is quite clear that the first nail-formed hieroglyph, written four times consecutively, stands for four 100’s and not for four 10000’s. The seven middle flower-shaped hieroglyphs represent seven 10’s. This is not disputed. The nine left "stick" hieroglyphs represent nine 1’s. This is also not disputed. The number represented here is thus the number 479 and not, as the Egyptologists would have us believe, he number 40079. A study of the magnified hieroglyphs confirms our analysis.
Figure 20 (ab0ve):
Khasekhemwy and his Numbers (slightly magnified)
Figure 21 (above):
Khasekhemwy and his Numbers (strongly magnified)
The individual numbers from the right to the left are 4-7-9 = 479 years, plus 120 days intercalated (2x 60), the @-shaped hieroglyphs. These numbers are clear. The Pharaohs would never have written the number 40279 this way, with 100's between the 10's and 1's, above the 1's.
The Origin of the Cult of Horus
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 26
As further proof of Khasekhemwy’s calendar reform, four intercalated months are found listed in the Turin Canon (Turin Papyrus) for the Pharaoh Sethenis. The chroniclers of the Pharaohs otherwise only list the full years of reign of a pharaoh, but never the months. This absolute exception from the rule involves the 4 x 30 day intercalation which was made between the reign of Pharaoh Sethenis (Seth-Peribsen) and Pharaoh Necherophis, also known as Zazai = Khasekhemwy.
The last and surest proof for the calendar-reform is the famed statue of Khasekhemwy himself. The intercalation of 120 days after the elapse of 479 years is engraved at the foot of Khasekhemwy’s statue.
Figure 19: Khasekhemwy and his Calendric Statue
The numbers (see subsequent magnifications) are to be read from the right to the left. The Egyptologists have erred in believing that the right-hand hieroglyph stands for "10000 ". They assume that this hieroglyph in Khasekhemwy’s day already had a fixed decimal place value. There is no proof to support this assumption. The Egyptologists erroneously think that the numeric hieroglyphs on Khasekhemwy’s statue represent the number 40279, the alleged number of enemies killed during Khasekhemwy’s reign. That is impossible. Not even Napoleon had more than 50000 soldiers when he invaded Africa. In the year 2638 B.C., in an era of much smaller populations, more than 40000 enemies killed is simply too many. No one in antiquity counted dead enemies to this exactness – for what possible reason?
The hieroglyphs actually count the dead, bygone 479 years.
[Outside the scope of the article is our linguistic theory for that practice. The Pharaohs were Indo-Europeans, as we have long alleged. In ancient Indo-European on the basis of Latvian we can observe that the term for "enemies killed in battle" is kautie whereas the homophonic term for "years anno" is gadi, which we presume is rooted in the related terms gaid-/gait- "pace, the passage of time"- and this is the linguistic origin of this homophonic depiction.
We find a similar, quite humorous problem in the ridiculous idea - shared by Egyptologists, ancient Near East and Biblical scholars - that when sheep are depicted in ancient documents together with numbers, that the ancients (insomniacs?) are counting sheep. Chumps! In Indo-European on the basis of Latvian the term AITA is a sheep and the homophonic IETI (also in Greek) means "to go, passage (of time). Hence, in view of all of that sheep-counting that the scholars have been doing, they better get back to their drawing boards and retranslate everything having to do with sheep, because the sheep are determinatives for a TIME count of some kind within the meaning of the particular document.]
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 25
The oldest similar representation of heaven as containing dog-like animals is found in the Cucuteni Culture 4500-3500 B.C. (northeast Romania). As below, heavenly snakes or eels or worms are surrounded by four dogs. These dogs have substantial similarity with the later Seth in Egypt:
Figure 18: Painted Conic Vessel, Cucuteni Culture, 4500-3500 B.C.
As noted by Richard Hinckley Allen, Seth also has been equated with the stellar constellation of Ursa Minor. Allen writes that the old Egyptians equated the Jackal of Set with the circumpolar constellations "even as late as the Denderah zodiac". Seth is also portrayed in the Ramesseum.
Allen writes that the representation of the jackal in the Ramesseum has great similarity to Ursa Minor. Allen is of the opinion that Seth as a dog-like animal had something to do with the circumpolar stars for a long time prior to that. Plutarch equates Seth with "Anubis, Apap, Apepi, Bes, Tebba, Temha, and Typhoeus", pointing to a relation to the Dragon (lizard, snake), which in Egypt first was represented as a crocodile or serpent. Plutarch also notes that the Phoenicians called Seth Doube or Döbher. This would then perhaps have been Thuban in then Ursa Minor.
8. Khasekhemwy Carries out the required Calendar-Reform
Pharaoh Khasekhemwy understood that neither Seth nor Horus, the falcon, were responsible for the calendric difficulties of the Pharaohs, but rather the calendar-makers themselves. Accordingly, Khasekhemwy carried out the necessary calendric correction of adding 4 x 30 days.
He inserted the necessary 120 intercalary (leap) days as "year-days", symbolized through four purely monthly "calendric kings": Chaires, Nepercheris, Sesochris, and Cheneres, none of whom actually reigned in real life. That is why these kings are not found on the list of kings at Abydos and also are not archaeologically verifiable up to this day.
 Marija Gimbutas, Die Sprache der Göttin: Das verschüttete Symbolsystem der westlichen Zivilisation, Zweitausendeins, Frankfurt, 1998, p.161, originally The Language of the Goddess: Unearthing the Hidden Symbols of Western Civilization.
 Richard Hinckley Allen, Star Names, Dover, NY, 1963, p. 450.
The Origin of the Cult of Horus
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 24
7. A dog-like Seth and Horus the Falcon
We now can connect the names and serekhs of the Pharaohs to our original discussion of the fact that the North Celestial Pole for the first Pharaohs was found in the stars of Ursa Minor, protected by its guards, the stars Kochab and Pherkad, symbolized as falcons.
Figure 17: The Calendar Reform of Khasekhemwy
Allen writes about Horus that it represents one of the oldest heavenly "myths". The desert peoples, on the other hand, saw the North Celestial Pole as a herd of camels, protecting themselves in a ring against the attack of the hyenas or the jackals. In this manner, the jackal and the hyena, as Seth, entered the Pharaonic heavens as foreign symbols. The original symbol of the falcon now had competition at the center of heaven.
 Richard Hinckley Allen, Star Names, Dover, NY, 1963, p. 434.
 Marija Gimbutas writes that a falcon-like heveanly bird goddess is in evidence for the peoples of Europe from the very earliest of times. Is that the Pharaonic Horus origin? Marija Gimbutas, Die Sprache der Göttin: Das verschüttete Symbolsystem der westlichen Zivilisation, Zweitausendeins, Frankfurt, 1998, originally The Language of the Goddess: Unearthing the Hidden Symbols of Western Civilization.
The Origin of the Cult of Horus
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 23
6. Calendar Reform was Long Overdue after 479 years
After 479 years (i.e. in Pharaonic year 480), which was at the time of the Pharaoh Khasekhemwy in Egypt, the calendar, since Narmer’s establishment of that calendar, was a full 120 days in error. The seasons no longer agreed with actual time. A calendar reform was sorely needed.
At the same time, the North Celestial Pole's actual position had moved by nearly 7 degrees in the heavens, and the solstices and the equinoxes had similarly moved with respect to the stars in the heavens (these shift 1 degree every 72 years). The deviation of the civil calendar from the actual "heavenly" calendar was surely clearly apparent to all and surely gave reason to doubt the heavenly falcon's supreme position. In other words, the inaccurate calendar in use gave rise to a calendric crisis between the godly falcon, Horus, and the usurper, Seth, represented by desert peoples in Egypt as a dog-like animal, i.e. either a dog, hyena or a jackal.
Figure 16: The Second Dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Egypt
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 22
Manetho gave the reigns of pharaohs in full years only, leaving the months of partial years unaccounted for. That would be approximately six months per king (the average from 0 to 12), which would extend the total chronology for the first 13 Pharaohs by ca. 6 years. Therefore, I have added 1 year every two kings to the calculated chronology of Manetho.
Figure 15: The First Dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Egypt
The Pharaohs of the Old Kingdom divided the year up into 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 days at the end = 365 days. Our modern 365-day calendar is similar, except that we add February 29 every four years for a year of 366 days, since the actual year is ca. 365.25 days. Without such a calendric correction, the calendar would quickly come into disarray, lacking one day to actual seasonal time every four years.
 See here e.g. Leap year, Wikipedia.
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 21
The solar eclipse is represented by Narmer’s dark enemy. Narmer is protected to the right by the falcon of heaven above. We read the graphic elements with the falcon as HR-M(r)DZ "God of Light", as in the later Persian Ahura Mazda. The defeated enemy kneels before Narmer. This enemy is identified by the hieroglyphs as ANG(r)-MEN, i.e. "Angru Mainyu", the later "Ahriman", or the "God the Darkness". These are the two opponents of the much later teachings of Zarathustra (Zoroaster). The back side of the Narmer Palette therefore shows the victory of light over the powers of the eclipse. Perhaps this was the origin of the later Persian cuneiform view that Capricorn was "the father of the light".
5. The Sequence and Significance of the Horus Names of the early Pharaohs after Narmer are interpreted as "Heavenly Houses".
The previous analysis puts us in a position to be able to read and understand the sequence and meaning of the mainstream Horus Names of the early Pharaohs. Pharaoh means "big house" in Pharaonic language and the Pharaoh’s name should thus be understood to apply to a heavenly house. All Horus Names mark a particular stellar region of the heavens, which was assigned to each Pharaoh as his starry realm.
Figures 15 and 16 show the hieroglyphic Horus Names of the Pharaohs in the left column. The middle column shows the transcription (writing) of these Horus Names in Latin letters by the Egyptologists, accompanied under that by our astronomical explanation of these Horus Names.
Each Horus Name Corresponds to an Area of the Heavens, similar to our division of the sky into Constellations of the Zodiac.
In the right column, the dating of the reign of each Pharaoh is noted. The right column shows also Manetho’s originally Greek-written names of the Pharaohs in Latin letters, as well as the lengths of reign assigned to these individual kings by Manetho. All of these names have astronomical meaning and help to explain Horus Names as having an astronomical origin. Since the months are missing in Manethos reigns, I have calibrated the chronology to account for these missing months.
 A. Smith, Angra Mainyu.
 Richard Hinckley Allen, Star Names, Dover, NY, 1963, p. 139.
 Narmer used to be regarded almost everywhere in Egyptology as the first king of Dynasty 1. Now many Egyptologists erroneously count him to a non-existent Dynasty 0. Correct is that Narmer marks the beginning of the first long-term human calendar, initiated by a solar eclipse at sunrise at the winter solstice on December 25, 3117 B.C. Kings prior to Narmer were not part of this new era, which Narmer began.
 Peter A. Clayton, Die Pharaonen: Herrscher und Dynastien im alten Ägypten, ECON Verlag, Düsseldorf, 1995. The original in english is Chronicle of the Pharaohs.
 Manetho was an Egyptian priest under Ptolemy I (ca. 300 B.C.) who divided up Egyptian history into 30 dynasties. He wrote the names of the Egyptian kings in Greek letters, which we give here in Latin letters. See e.g. http://www.selket.de/ahnenfor.htm.
 See Manetho & the King Lists at http://www.egyptologyonline.com/manetho.htm and LexiLine at http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi20.htm and http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi156.htm
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 20
I am of the opinion that the three "world-calendars", Maya, Pharaonic, and Hindu, whose start is today dated to the astronomical years -3100, -3113 and -3102 respectively, all had the same common origin and that the date discrepancies are based on miscalculations made by scholars over the millennia. Christine Moore of the Supreme Yoga Council writes in this regard:
"It is noteworthy that the date of 3102 BC ... appears to have been important in the traditions of Ancient Egypt, Central America and other Ancient Civilisations ... the year 3101 BC commemorates the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. Similarly, in the Maya tradition of Central America, 3114 BC marks the beginning of a New World Age."
The Narmer Palette shows that a new calendar was established:
The Narmer Palette, front side, top, shows heaven's center
The Narmer Palette, front side, top, represents the center of heaven.
4. The Rear Side of the Narmer Palette (see Figure 10)
As shown, the front side of the Narmer Palette has an astronomical, calendric significance. What about the back side? The back side of the Narmer palette (figure 10) shows Narmer as the "sovereign of heaven's pole" vanquishing the solar eclipse. The God of Light defeats the God of Darkness. As written by David Talbott (Footnote 36): "To the Egyptians, the celestial enclosure possessed the magical quality of protecting the inhabitants from the dark...."
 Christine Moore, The Indian (Hindu) Calendar and Kali Yuga.
Friday, October 14, 2005
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 19
The lowermost part of the front side of the Narmer Palette shows the exact location in the stars at which the solar eclipse took place. It occurred in the stars of Capricorn, near the star Deneb Algiedi. A bull hovers over the defeated enemy. On the oldest artifacts, such beaten enemies always mark the bygone years, so our discovery.
The oldest known human symbols for the stars of Capricorn are all bull-like animals, indicating a common origin for this star symbol. The Chinese, for example, first marked Capricorn by a bull or ox, the Hindus had an antelope and the people of ancient Mesopotamia had an ibex, as also the NAR-mer related term NIRu, the yoke, for Capricorn.
Starry Night Pro 3.0 correctly represents this solar eclipse. Later versions have apparently altered the Delta-T value (speed of the rotation of the earth over time) so that it now looks as if the eclipse takes place around midnight rather than sunrise on December 25, 3117 B.C. That is wrong. The Delta-T value used in Starry Night Pro 3.0 was correct.
Years ago I corrected the Maya dating and thereby determined that December 25, 3117 B.C. marked the start of the first long-term human calendar. According to conventional theory, the Maya calendar "began in the dark" [In my opinion, this was the darkness of a solar eclipse,] at 13 Baktun 4 Ahau 8 Cumku. Those three calendar units in each case mark the end viz. the begin of a new calendric count. It is a date that mainstream Maya researchers wrongly interpret as August 13, 3114 B.C., a date without any astronomical significance whatsoever, which is simply unthinkable for ancient calendration. The Maya scholars have chosen this date without making leap year-corrections (!), the most elementary and necessary application of calendric calibration. That is where the mistake in Maya chronology is to be found.
Armin Naudit writes respecting the Maya calendar:
"An exact determination [of Maya chronology] is not possible, since we know in the interim that the Maya used a 360-day calendar for a long time, but later also a calendar having 365.25 days....
The Mayas fixed this date [the start of the calendar] for unknown reasons. G. Ifra writes… 'It was said that the reason was cosmic-catastrophic. Only a very extraordinary astronomical event could have given rise to the start of such a long-term calendar tradition.'"
Exactly! The event was indeed astronomically singular and spectacular. It was a solar eclipse at sunrise at the winter solstice. The date was December 25, 3117 B.C.
 R. H. Allen, Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning, Dover, NY, 1963, pp. 138-139.
 See LexiLine, THE MAYA CALENDAR, PIEDRAS NEGRAS, and HALLEY'S COMET at LexiLine.
 See LexiLine.
 Armin Naudit, Der Mayakalender und sein katastrophischer Hintergrund, EFODON-SYNESIS, Nr. 10/1995.
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 18
One can verify that stars were represented in ancient Egypt by means of small squares - as on the bottom of the front side of the Narmer Palette - by examining the Abydos City Palette, located in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Also here, we have deciphered the astronomical meaning:
In the graphic above, I have placed the stars of the appropriate constellations beside the corresponding hieroglyphs, for example, the Pleiades, Orion, Cancer, Virgo. Small squares clearly represent stars.
3. The Front Side of the Narmer Palette shows the Solar Eclipse of December 25, 3117 B.C.
The middle part of the front side of the Narmer Palette (figure 12) shows the solar eclipse of December 25, 3117 B.C. Two lion-like animals, who symbolize the sun, are in battle. With their artistically formed overlong intertwined necks, they show the intertwined "O-Form" of the total solar eclipse.
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 17
Figure 11 (above):
The Narmer Palette front side, middle, shows a solar eclipse.
The Sun is encircled (and blotted out) by the long-necked lions.
Figure 12 (above): The Narmer Palette, front side, bottom.
This shows that the solar eclipse occurred in the stars of Capricorn
near the star Deneb Algiedi.
That was unequivocally December 25, 3117 B.C.
The small squares on the Narmer Palette mark stars of the heavens,
and these are the stars of Capricorn.
The Origin of the Cult of Horus
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 16
2. The Horus Falcon Name of Narmer means:
"Sovereign of the Pole"
The First Pharaonic Dynasty starts with Pharaoh Narmer (Nir-Mr), whose serekh (royal name enclosure) has also been found in present-day Israel. Our research shows that at the beginning of the Pharaonic dynasties, Narmer was represented as "the sovereign of the pole", this perhaps even indicating an origin of the Pharaohs from the North.
The Mesopotamian name of the pole star Mismar is possibly written out as Mis-Mar on the world-famous Narmer Palette in the hieroglyphs on the right side. Indeed, we read M-Z M-R. Could the name Nar-MER be related linguistically to the name Mis-MAR? and/or is one of these readings false, both being the same?The Narmer Palette is shown below. For the first time ever, this Palette is deciphered subsequently as the astronomy of the Pharaohs, who are uniting two kingdoms, those of heaven and earth.
Figure 10: The world-famed Narmer Palette
Egyptian Museum, Cairo
Mainstream archaeology dates Narmer to approximately 3100 B.C. Similarly, our research indicates that the first calendar of mankind started exactly on December 25, 3117 B.C. when a total solar eclipse was visible at sunrise at the winter solstice point, an incredible astronomical event. Narmer represents this event and date. As we show here, this astronomical event is clearly documented on the Narmer Palette.
 Thomas E. Levy, Edwin C.M. van den Brink, Yuval Goren and David Alon, New Light on King Narmer and the Protodynastic Egyptian Presence in Canaan, Biblical Archaeology [now Near East Archaeologist], 1995 Volume 58, Number 1. See http://weber.ucsd.edu/Depts/Anthro/classes/tlevy/Tillah/recent.html.
 R. H. Allen, Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning, Dover, NY, 1963, p. 457.
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 15
C. The Horus Falcon Names of the Egyptian Kings
1. The Horus Falcon Names are a Calendar of Kings:
The Calendar begins on December 25, 3117 B.C.
(= astronomically the year -3116).
The interpretation of the names of Egyptian kings has been a point of dispute among Egyptologists for quite some time. Our discovery that the Horus falcon marked heaven’s celestial pole in predynastic Egypt suggests that the Horus names of the Egyptian kings were astronomical in nature. We have found that these names of kings - written below the falcon in the serekh - claimed certain heavenly stellar regions as the king's realm of reign. These heavenly regions basically correspond to the modern Zodiac in principle, delineating a particular part of the heavens. The Horus names of kings were therefore a type of calendar of kings. Using that calendar, one can determine the reigns of the early Pharaonic kings astronomically.
Start of the calendar
Figure 9: The solar eclipse of December 25, 3117 B.C.
It took place at sunrise on the day of the winter-solstice, an auspicious event that well-served to mark the start of time recordation. This eclipse is dated according to Starry Night Pro 3, but not by later versions of that software astronomy program since Delta T appears to have been changed by the programmers in the interim and made less accurate than it was. The Delta-T value is disputed among astronomers, but it gives changing values over time for the rate of spin of the Earth, which rate affects the exact time and location of ancient solar eclipses, whose accuracy is therefore not accepted by mainstream astronomers much beyond about 600BC. Based on the material following, we think this eclipse is confirmed in the Egyptian sources.
 See Jürgen von Beckerath, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, 2nd ed., von Zabern, Mainz, 1999.
 Starry Night Pro 3.
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 14
[This material on Akhet is very speculative since the only source at my disposal shows only ONE mountain as the north celestial pole in ancient Egypt. It is also not critical to the main discussion.]
Aakhut [=Egge?, =Achu? Akhet] is possibly mistranslated by Egyptologists as "horizon" whereas it actually seems in the Old Kingdom to mark the domicile of RA at night. Budge first translated akhet as horizon in the context of the Sun revolving around it, but the Sun does not revolve around the horizon. That is astronomically false. The sun revolves around the north celestial pole (as all stars do). (See Gerald S. Hawkins, Stonehenge Decoded, p. 96.) Akhet is thus originally possibly the heavenly mountain domicile of the Sun - it is not the Sun alledgedly rising between two mountains, which is how the appropriate later hieroglyph is interpreted. Why in Egypt where there are no mountains would the horizon possibly be so portrayed? We have the similar symbol widely found also on Minoan Crete. These two summits at midheaven would be:
1) the North Ecliptic Pole (which never changes), and
2), the North Celestial Pole, the changeable pole we call the Pole Star, which is not always marked exactly by a particular star and where the position of the pole star is determined by precession.
I have been able to find an ancient representation from Egypt of the heavenly throne in the center of the heaven, guarded by one or more falcons. However, it has only one mountian.
The artefact below was found in the year 1995 in the western desert of Egypt and is shown here as deciphered by this author in 2005.
The assignment of the individual symbols to the respective stars manifests my unequivocal interpretation of the meaning of the symbols.
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN SKY MAP (PLANISPHERE)
Figure 8: Sky map, Western Desert, Ancient Egypt
Above, one can clearly see that the center of heaven is represented as a mountain-like or stool-like summit or throne, guarded by falcons.
The Origin of the Cult of Horus
in Predynastic Egypt - Page 13
This "protective enclosure" is present in the myths of many cultures... represented by many symbols… in Egypt for example as Aakhut.
 David Talbott, On Testing the Polar Configuration, in the most complete summary that we have been able to find of ancient sources relating to the stars at heaven's center, writes:
"Because the north celestial Pole is its pivot or center, it is the polar configuration...."
[Heaven's Center as the "Eye of Heaven"]
"The Egyptian Book of the Dead reads: "I am the lord of the crown. I am in the Eye, my egg. My seat is on my throne. I sit in... the pupil of the Eye...."
[Heaven's Center as a Protective Enclosure. Settlement or Temple of Heaven]
"[T]he Hebrew celestial Jerusalem, "Sublime in elevation in the uttermost north. . .the City of the King; the Chinese "Imperial City," defined as an enclosure around the north celestial Pole; the Hindu celestial city of Brahma, "the all-containing city" at the celestial Pole.... To the Egyptians, the celestial enclosure possessed the magical quality of protecting the inhabitants from the dark [see Narmer later] and chaotic forces outside the enclosure, and this simple fact will explain why the enclosure was conceived as a shield....."
[Heaven's Center as a Column or Mountain]
"The Hindus knew the famous mountain as Meru, on whose summit stood the primeval dwelling of the gods. In the beginning this "golden mountain" or "jewelled peak" rose in the cosmic sea to serve as a universe pillar holding aloft the celestial city of Brahma. Around the summit of this axis-mountain turned the starry heavens.
Chinese myth recalls a similar mount.... On the summit of Kwen-Lun stood the great palace of Shang-ti, the universal emperor at the celestial Pole ... Tze-wei, "a celestial space around the north Pole."
The Japanese recalled the world mountain Shumi, described as "a fabulous mountain of wonderful height, forming the axis of every Universe, and the center around which all the heavenly bodies revolve ....
According to the Zend Avesta, "The Maker Ahura Mazda [see Narmer later] has built up a dwelling on the Hera-Berezaiti, the bright mountain around which the many stars revolve....
Altaic races remember the cosmic mountain whose "peak rises to the sky at the North Star where the axis of the sky is situated, and where, on the peak, the dwelling of the Over-god and his 'golden throne' are situated." This was "at the navel of heaven, on the peak of the famous mountain.
The Greek Olympos, where stood the original city of the gods and home of Kronos ... was the "wholly shining," a cosmic mountain rising into the fiery aether and called the "navel" and "axis" of the world.
The Hebrew celestial Jerusalem stood on the summit of the cosmic Zion, after which the Hebrews named the local hill in Palestine. "Great is the Lord, and greatly to be praised in the city of our God, in the mountain of his holiness. Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, is mount Zion." "Mt. Zion, thou 'far reaches of the North,' an emperor's citadel.
Many remarkable counterparts to these traditions will be found in the myths and symbols of the New World. One of the better known instances is the White or Shining Mountain Colhuacan, recognized by many writers as a polar column. On the summit of Colhuacan dwelt the original divine race [Achu, the demigods]. The Omaha recall... "the great white rock, standing and reaching as high as the heavens, enwrapped in mist, verily as high as the heavens. In the Eskimo tradition the world of the gods is situated above a great mountain around which the celestial bodies revolve...."
[Heaven's Center as a Mountain, Column (Pole), Phallus, Serpent, World Tree, Bird]
"The hypothesized cosmic mountain could hardly have failed to produce a great variety of symbols.... Taking the most obvious examples, we list these mythical images as the logical and predicted figures of the cosmic column, if such a thing was actually witnessed by ancient man: World Mountain, Pillar, Binding Post, Phallic Column, Serpent-Column, Trunk of the World Tree....
Egyptian symbolism presents the four life-bearing streams as the Four Sons of Horus, identified as "four blustering winds," "four blazing flames" or fourstreams of water. But the same figures are presented as "four pillars of heaven" placed at the four corners of the celestial habitation.... [T]he outstretched wings of the thunderbird or winged god or goddess, signified the same thing as the cosmic ship, the two peaks of the world mountain .... The stationary god rests within the band of the Aten (presented in its popular form as a circular serpent). Within the enclosure the god's seat is the Aakhut, the two-peaks of the Mountain of Fire-Light."
We disagree with Talbott's main hypothesis in that writing, but his above discussion of ancient mythologies of heaven’s center (the north celestial pole) is superb and that is why we have quoted so much of this eminently important text. See Kronia where that text appears in an extensive article by Talbott "On the Polar Configuration".
Thursday, October 13, 2005
>Thuban was the north star in Draco during the building
>of the Great pyramid in Giza.
>This can be proven by doing a precession astronomy
>program like Starry Night Pro.
This is a very interesting observation, with an even more interesting answer.
Thank you, Bill, for raising this question.
There is of course no dispute with the fact that the fairly weak visible star Thuban neared the north celestial pole in the 3rd millennium, coming closest to within 10' of that pole ca. 2750 BC, according to Richard Hinckley Allen's Star Names (p. 206).
However, this does not mean 1) that Thuban was at that time assigned to a constellation which is the comparable of Draco today, or 2) that the ancients actually USED Thuban to mark the north celestial pole.
Thuban is simply not bright enough as a star to be used practically for this purpose and that is why the ancients used the nearby Kochab and Pherkad , which are much more visible.
Bill is surely referring to the work of Robert Bauval on the four main shafts of the Great Pyramid of Giza. Bauval claims that these four shafts point to the stars Thuban, Al Nitak, Sirius and Kochab.
But the actual slope of the shafts does not support this contention. As written by Frank Dörnenburg (Doernenburg) at The Orion-Pyramids: Technical Examinations: The Shafts, the following "corrected" years (i.e. corrected from Bauval's figures) represent in fact the years when the actually measured slope of the shafts would have pointed to the selected star (or near it). This is later than what Bauval claims but supports well our own solar eclipse theory and our dates for the pyramids which are more correctly later than anyone else has thus far suggested. See LexiLine.
Dörnenburg writes that Rudolf Gantenbrink determined the slopes of the shafts and that Bauval has not stuck to these consistently and has used some date correction schemes such as "epochs" which are questionable.
The Gantenbrink data applied to the stars results in this data: (columns may skew on the internet)
Star.......Decl......Elev......Shaft......Error.....Nec. Decl....Corr. Year
Note that the error with respect to Al Nitak, Sirius and Kochab is about the same and that these could well have been sighted directly. The error with respect to Thuban, however, is disproportionately large, and it is possible that the Cheops pyramid was being used to locate the ACTUAL north celestial pole, which at the time of the building of the pyramids was not directly at Thuban - nor do we have any evidence that Thuban was ever used as the "pole star" in this connection. The Giza shaft simply does not point directly at Thuban.
Quite the contrary, what other reason is there to sight Kochab other than that THIS was the traditional pole star in ancient Egypt, and, as Kate Spence (apparently relying in part on Bauval's work) has written, a line through Kochab and Mizar at the time of the building of Cheops marked "true North" and would have aided the ancients in building the Cheops pyramid, which may in fact have been built because of precession as an instrument to determine or verify precession.
There is even the possibility that KOCHAB as a term is identical in origin with the Greek CHEOP-s, i.e. Cheop=Kochab. That Kochab was used as the pole star in distant antiquity is perhaps also substantiated by the fact that KAWKAB means simply "THE star" in Arabic (Arabic الكوكب al-kawkab and is basically the same word as the Hebrew term for "star" which is KOKAB.
Richard Hinckley Allen writes (p.450) that it was Ursa Minor that was called Doube (the "guiding one") by the Phoenicians and not Thuban, whereas, as Allen reports, "Jacob Bryant assigned it [Ursa Minor] to Egypt, or Phoenicia as Cahen ourah [Horus?], -- whatever that may be." Allen writes that "Kochab...perhaps was this star the Greek astronomers called POLOS [pole star]. (p. 450)
We thus have many sources that verify Kochab being used as an ancient polestar and no such sources for Thuban.
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