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Thursday, June 17, 2004

Lower Egypt Nome 6 - ANE BC P17

Lower Egypt Nome 6 - ANE BC P17

This posting expands on the previous presentation in the Ancient Egypt Blog CHEOPS explaining the Lower and Upper Nomes of Egypt as hermetic geodetic astronomy.
See explanation of the Lower Egypt Nomes and the Upper Egypt Nomes.
See also Lower Egypt Nome 5 (in English) and Egyptian Nomes (in German)

LOWER EGYPT NOME 6


6. V of Horns of Lupus, H3sww, "mountain bull".

Update, June 18, 2004:

In Hannig ED1 (p. 1542, Toponyme), the first term listed is transcribed as 3wrt and transliterated as Auret (*Buto). This transcription and transliteration is incorrect. The hieroglyphs actually read GAI-OS VA-R-TI,
(see my postings about the hieroglyphs for corrected readings of symbols).

In Latvian "guos varti" viz "guovs varti" means "the gate of the cattle" which in the hermetic astronomical context is LUPUS, homophonic with Latvian LUOPS "cattle, cow, steer". (Note that where the dictionaries write Latvian "o" as gos viz. govs and luops as lops, I use the "uo" instead of the "o" - as in earlier German orthography of Latvian - since it better reflects the true pronunciation. The Latvian "O" is not like the English O but is closer to a "W" or "UO" sound.

The above reading of "cattle gate" is confirmed by the actual nome symbol of a steer.

Lower Egypt Nome 5 - ANE BC P16


Lower Egypt Nome 5 - ANE BC P16

This posting expands on the previous presentation in the Ancient Egypt Blog CHEOPS explaining the Lower and Upper Nomes of Egypt as hermetic geodetic astronomy.
See explanation of the Lower Egypt Nomes and the Upper Egypt Nomes.
See also Lower Egypt Nome 5 (in English) and Egyptian Nomes (in German)

LOWER EGYPT NOME 5


5. V-stars of Centaurus, Nt, "Northern shield", the stars which at theta-Centauri (Menkent) form the shape of a flower above the centaur.

Update, June 17

The major city of Nome 5 (and perhaps also 4) was Sau (Zau), in Greek Sais and in Arabic Sa al-Hagar. Zau and Hagar might be remnants of the names Wazn and Hadar, "Ground and Weight" applied to the stars alpha and beta-Centauri.

Wednesday, June 16, 2004

Pharaonic Egyptian Hieroglyphs 1 - Vowel Sounds - ANE BC P15


Pharaonic Egyptian Hieroglyphs 1 - Vowel Sounds - ANE BC P15

Pharaonic Egyptian Vowels in Hieroglyphs

Pharaonic Egyptian Vowels in Hieroglyphs

The current view of the Egyptian hieroglyphs is that they contained no "vowels". Although this is true in terms of "modern" vowels as used to separate consonants, the Egyptian hieroglyphs do in fact have symbols for vowel-type sounds which did not function as "vowels" per se but which represented separate language elements as specific sounds.

The above graphic shows my new decipherment of the ancient Old Kingdom Pharaonic Egyptian vowel-sound system.

Decipherment of the Vowel-Sound System of Ancient Egypt

This decipherment is the beginning of my correction of the mainstream transcriptions, transliterations and interpretations of the hieroglyphs. Mainstream work contains many, many errors.

In the early days of the Pharaonic Egyptian hieroglyphs, the ancients did not yet have our words or specific concepts for "vowel" or "consonant".

Indeed, even in modern times, a thing like "vowels" is a complicated subject. See e.g. Louis Goldstein of Yale University and his writings on "vowel theory".

Yet, in order to devise a written language, the ancients had to have some primitive "linguistic" understanding of sound and its connection to symbols in order to devise a workable writing system.

I have discovered how that Pharaonic "vowel" system worked.

Mater Lectionis - Early vowels in the Hebrew Alphabet

The Pharaonic "vowels" show that the Egyptian hieroglyphs were the DIRECT predecessor system to what is known as the matres lectionis of the Hebrew alphabet in which the letter Aleph is mostly an A, the letter He mostly an A, the letter Waw mostly an O or a U, and the letter Jod (also spelled Yod) mostly I, E or AE.

The Linguistics of Sound and Vowel Theory

Mater lectionis derives out of the limited number of ways in which
vowels can be formed by human speech.

Early Vowel Theory

As Goldstein notes:

Indian grammarians as early as the 7th century
already divided vowels into three distinct types:
(1) palatal (so-called "mouth vowels")
(2) labio-velar (so-called "lip vowels")
(3) pharyngeal (so-called "throat vowels")

Modern Vowel Theory

Modern linguistics has expanded this list to four types of vowels:
(1) palatal ("mouth vowels")
(2) velar ("lip vowels")
(3) uvular ("tongue vowels")
(4) pharyngeal ("in the throat")

The Egyptian Vowel-Type Hieroglyphs mark Vowel Sounds

What I have discovered in the most ancient Pharaonic Egyptian hieroglyphs is that their makers recognized four qualities of vowel-type sounds - and consciously selected homophonic (same-sounding) symbols to mark these sounds - sounds which are similar in function to modern linguistic vowel theory, but of course not as advanced in their nature 5000 years ago.

These four vowel-type sounds in ancient Egypt were:

1. The Breath Sound - Breath Hieroglyph - the "LEAF, reed LEAF" Hieroglyph
2. The Throat Sound - Pharyngeal Hieroglyph - the "EAGLE" (vulture) Hieroglyph
3. The Nasal Sound - Velar Hieroglyph - the "CHICKEN" Hieroglyph
4. The Palatal Sound - Uvular Hieroglyph - the "BENT ARM" Hieroglyph

In order to represent these "vowel-types" with symbols, the makers of the hieroglyphs - on the basis of the evidence of the Indo-European language, e.g. on the basis of Latvian lexical comparisons, selected symbols which were pronounced similarly - i.e. were homophonic - to the vowel sound description.

The Four Pairs of Homophonic Hieroglyphs and Vowel Sound Functions

The following four pairs of words are homophonic in Latvian - and fit the Egyptian hieroglyphs perfectly. I find that these same homophonic pairs are found clearly in the Egyptian hieroglyphs:

1. ALPA (whence ALPHA) viz. ELPA "breath" is homophonic with LAPA viz. VARPA "leaf, ear" whence also VARPATA "couch-grass, dog grass". (Note that the later alphabet used the "steer, ox" symbol for Alpha, a steer in Latvian being LUOP, also a word homophonic to ALPA.) In ancient Old Kingdom Egypt, the "leaf" or "reed leaf" symbol thus represented the "breath sound" in the ancient hieroglyphs.

2. IERIKLIS ("in the throat") is homophonic with ERGLIS "eagle" (vulture in Egypt). The "eagle" viz. "vulture" symbol thus represented the "throat sound" in the ancient hieroglyphs.

3. UOSTA ("smell, smeller, of the nose") is homophonic with VISTA "chicken".
The "chicken" symbol thus represented a "nasal sound" in the ancient hieroglyphs.

4. ROKA ("bent, arm") is homophonic with LOKA "bent, pliable, flexible", supple").
The "bent arm" thus represented a "palatal (bent) sound" in the ancient hieroglyphs. Even today LOCISHANA in Latvian is applied as a word in linguistics, applying to declension and conjugation.

Consequence of the Hieroglyphic "Vowel-Sound" Discovery

This above discovery now permits us to recognize that the hieroglyphs were not just chance symbols selected at random or because of religious or other considerations, but were selected primarily for their pronounced SOUND as being similarly sounding - homophonic - to an intended linguistic sound FUNCTION.

Accordingly, we will expect a similar intelligence and rational reasoning to be at work in the formulation of the remainder of the hieroglyphs, also for the "consonants" (which - as we will see - were also seen combined with vowel sounds). Even though the ancients did not have the precise equivalent concept of "consonant" in ancient days, they recognized similar sounds.

An explanation of the hieroglyphs of the ancient Egyptian "alphabet" will also soon be forthcoming, as well as further correction of the decipherment of many other hieroglyphs which did not attain later "alphabetic" status.

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Monday, June 14, 2004

Lower Egypt Nome 4 - ANE BC P14

Lower Egypt Nome 4 - ANE BC P14

This posting expands on the previous presentation in the Ancient Egypt Blog CHEOPS explaining the Lower and Upper Nomes of Egypt as hermetic geodetic astronomy.
See explanation of the Lower Egypt Nomes and the Upper Egypt Nomes.
See also Lower Egypt Nome 4 (in English) and Egyptian Nomes (in German)

LOWER EGYPT NOME 4


4. Spica in Virgo, nt, read by Egyptologists as "Southern shield", it is also possible that this is a reference to Centaurus and/or the Southern Cross, Crux, below Virgo. Centaurus was pictured with a shield in later eras. See Richard Hinckley Allen, Star Names, p. 151.

Update, June 16

Nomes 4 and 5 of Lower Egypt are the southern and northern parts of the "province" of Neit, divided after the Old Kingdom, and this large size makes it look as if Centaurus is intended rather than Spica and Virgo, Virgo being almost directly on the ecliptic, although the Arabic name for Virgo, Al Adhra al Nathifah (the innocent - or pure - maiden), may through Nath-ifah have given the name Neith to these two nomes, assigned to it by the Egyptologists.

The main city in Nome 4 is Tanta, which might be a variant of Kenta-urus, but this is speculation as there is no other evidence to support this conclusion as yet.

The idea of a "Southern Shield" has its comparable in Chinese astronomy where Nan Mun marked the lucida of the Centaur and was called the "South Gate".

RHA writes that alpha-Centauri was known as Serk-t in Egypt, but this seems not to explain the Sobek applied to it on the White Chapel (see Digital Egypt).

Monday, June 07, 2004

Ancient Egyptians had a Sense of Humor - ANE BC P12

Ancient Egyptians had a Sense of Humor - ANE BC P12

My father, Arvids Kaulins, had a favorite saying: "Times change, but people do not".

The Ancient Egyptians had a sense of humor and were just like moderns in this regard, according to a Discovery Channel article by Jennifer Viegas of Discovery News entitled Ancient Egyptians Were Jokesters, reporting on a lecture on the topic of Ancient Egyptian humor by Carol Andrews, a lecturer in Egyptology at Birbeck College, University of London.

Studies such as this are important to help us to realize that ancient men and women were like us and that portrayals of ancient man as an ignorant brute are just, well, ignorant. This also applies to our assessment of ancient technology.

For example, mainstream historians of astronomy want to deny the ancients basic astronomical knowledge, and that attitude is simply a sign of modern ignorance. Similarly, the mainstream linguists, in their decipherment of the hieroglyphs, have not paid any attention to the fact that the inventors of human writing had some "linguistic" knowledge - speech not just being merely invented in the last 200 years - and this basic "linguistic knowledge" is clearly incorporated into the symbols they created (see e.g. our next posting).

Scott Noegel, president of the American Research Center in Egypt's (ARCE) Northwest Chapter and associate professor, Department of New Eastern Languages and Civilizations, University of Washington states that
ancient Egyptian humor could be divided into at least five basic types. See the article to see what they are.

Vincent Jones, president of the ARCE Georgia Chapter - ARCE is the American Research Center in Egypt - is quoted as saying that: "I believe that their sense of humor was very similar to our own".

Along similar lines, Guillemette Andreu, curator of the Louvre's Egyptian collection, pointed out recently in a lecture that Egyptians also had excuses about not coming to work, including illness, getting married, and other matters.

So what is new?

Saturday, June 05, 2004

Lower Egypt Nome 2 - ANE BC P11


Lower Egypt Nome 2 - ANE BC P11

This posting expands on the previous presentation in the Ancient Egypt Blog CHEOPS explaining the Lower and Upper Nomes of Egypt as hermetic geodetic astronomy.
See explanation of the Lower Egypt Nomes and the Upper Egypt Nomes.
See also Lower Egypt Nome 2 (in English) and Egyptian Nomes (in German)

LOWER EGYPT NOME 2


2. Crater, Hm, something like "front side cut" and perhaps related to the later Arabic Al Hayyah "snake". The shape of the hieroglyph might mark the head of Hydra and that same constellation to its left including Sextans.

Update, June 14
The main city in the second lower nome of Egypt was Khem (Greek Letopolis, Arabic Ausim) viz. KhentyKhem. Khem will mark the lucida (brightest star) in Hydra, Alphard, at the neck of the water serpent, known as Suhel al Fard in Arabic but also as Suhel al Sham (RHA p. 249)- Sham (Ausim) will be Khem.

The hieroglyph used for this nome, according to Hannig, marks the innards, which in Latvian are the word ikris and this corresponds to the 7th Vedic nakshatra Acresha at Hydra (RHA p. 248).

Hence, the first lower nome marks the Summer Solstice and the second lower nome marks the front of Hydra from head to Crater.

Lower Egypt Nome 1 - ANE BC P10

Lower Egypt Nome 1 - ANE BC P10

This posting expands on the previous presentation in the Ancient Egypt Blog CHEOPS explaining the Egyptian Lower and Upper Nomes as hermetic geodetic astronomy.
See explanation of the Lower Egypt Nomes and the Upper Egypt Nomes.
See also Lower Egypt Nome 1 (in English) and Egyptian Nomes (in German)

LOWER EGYPT NOME 1


1. nu-Hydrae (below Leo), Jnbw-hd, "the white wall". The "white wall" and the "gnomon" mark the Summer Solstice.
Update, June 5, 2004
The capital of the 1st lower nome was Memphis. That a gnomon is intended by the nome hieroglyph can be seen from the variant hieroglyph of Memphis as the "king's castle" where the man is clearly holding a gnomon
.
See Hannig, ED1, p. 1547.

A gnomon at Memphis is also marked on the Turin Canon.

The goddess Hathor at Memphis, the "eye" of Ra (the sun - related to Indo-European, e.g. Latvian Re!, Redz! "sight, light") and goddess of the sky, had the epithet "of the southern sycamore", which might have referred to the stars of Crater below Leo. Crater is marked as a tree on the megaliths of Ancient Britain at Trethevy Quoit. However, Hathor is also affiliated with the 3rd nome of Lower Egypt so that this matter is unclear.

The Chinese sieu (lunar mansion, moon station) in Hydra called Lieu was seen as a "willow branch" in this part of the heavens, governing the planets and being "worshipped at festivals of the summer solstice as an emblem of immortality". RHA, p. 248.

Friday, June 04, 2004

Lower Egypt Nome 6 - ANE BC P9


Lower Egypt Nome 6 - ANE BC P9

see also Lower Egypt Nome 6 (in English) and Egyptian Nomes (in German)

Individual Nomes to be Analyzed

Starting with this posting we begin to add material to the previous postings on the Nomes of Egypt as hermetic geodetic astronomy.

Nomes of Upper and Lower Egypt

As the present posting does, we will now discuss only one nome at a time as a new separate post - but then we will also add that material to the comprehensive detail postings previously published for the Lower Egypt Nomes and the Upper Egypt Nomes. That way, those two latter permalinks will always contain all newly updated materials for all nomes even though those two postings will retain the initial old timestamp of May 26, 2004 - in spite of the fact that they contain newly added materials. These will be marked "Update", plus the date of the update.

LOWER EGYPT NOME 6


Lower Egypt Nome 6. V of Horns of Lupus, H3sww, "mountain bull".

This is the area of sky where the stars of Lupus (Indo-European, e.g. Latvian lops, lopis (luopis) "animal, beast, cattle, livestock") and Centaurus meet. The Centaur was the ancient Minoan bull, the Minotaur, and also "on the Euphrates it was considered a complete Bull", see Richard Hinckley Allen (RHA), Star Names, pp. 150-151 (Lupus made up the head and horns).

The capital city of the sixth lower nome is Buto [Buto (de)] (Tell el-Fara'in viz. Farain), also called Uto, Edjo, Wadjet (Per-Wadjet) or Wadjit.

Wadjet was the cobra goddess of ancient Egypt twined around a papyrus stem. See Encyclopaedia Britannica under "Buto". As RHA points out, the area of connection of Lupus and Centaurus was known to the Arabs as Al Kadb al Karm, "the Vine Branch", i.e. the twine around a papyrus stem.

RHA notes that this stellar area was also called Al Wazn "weight" in Arabic, surely related to the "ground and weight" (Hadar and Wazn) of ancient stars in this region. I show that stars in this region of the heavens were originally arranged in the form of the net of the fisherman at Lupus and Centaurus according to my decipherment of the megaliths of Scotland. The net explains the use of "ground and weight", as used in net construction.

These "twins" of ground and weight are Pe and Dep, the semi-mythical Predynastic capitals of Lower Egypt at Buto, which we now can see marked the stars above and below the ecliptic. The Pyramid Texts state that Pe marks kings of "Lower Egypt" whereas Dep marks the serpent.

The use of the serpent rather than the bull came from using Serpens Caput above the ecliptic rather than Lupus and Centaur below it to mark this region of the heavens.

The Muu dancers show Dep as wearing a crown [above the ecliptic] and Pe as wearing none. DEP will be Indo-European, e.g. Latvian DEB-ess "heaven".

We now know from the above analysis that not only the nomes but also the capital city of each nome were hermetic, with the capital - in an astronomical context - presumably marking the lucida - the brightest star in each stellar region.

This area of the heavens marked the Autumn Equinox in ca. 3000 BC, where the ecliptic and the celestial equator met. Buto has three mounds, but I do not know the shape formed by these three mounds as a unit, by which one should be able determine the astronomical location in the stars exactly in the predynastic megalithic period. Perhaps these oldest mounds marked the three front prominent stars of Scorpio, as at other megalithic sites, i.e. in a prong form. The mounds of course would have preceded the later cities.

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